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PSYC406 Quiz 5


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// As many as __________% of inpatients may be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.

A.20
B.30
C.40
D.50
Correct E.60

//

Answer Key: E
// ____________________disorder is prevalent in correctional settings.

A.Dysthymic Personality
B.Sociopathic Personality
Correct C.Antisocial Personality
D.Narcissistic Personality

//

Answer Key: C
DSM-IV-TR includes 12 individual personality disorders.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
// Converting DSM personality disorder to a dimensional model requires integration with the:

A.Trait and Factor Theory
Correct B.5-Factor Model
C.Sociopathological Model
D.Social Constructivist Model

//

Answer Key: B
Personality disorders are generally believed to be untreatable.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
// And individual with the characteristics of aimlessness, unreliability, lax, negligent, manipulative, exploitative, aggressive, ruthless and hedonistic might be diagnosed with:

A.Narcissistic Personality Disorder
B.Obessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
C.Borderline Personality Disorder
Correct D.Antisocial Personality Disorder

//

Answer Key: D
The single most frequently diagnosed personality disorder is:____________ _______________ ___________. Correctborderline personality disorder

Answer Key: borderline personality disorder
Insecure interpersonal attachment is considered to be central to the etiology and pathology of: ______________ __________________ ______________. Correctdependent personality disorder

Answer Key: dependent personality disorder
Key to STPD are traits that include magical ideation, cognitive-perceptual abberrations, and eccentric behaviors.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
// Somatization is characterized by:

A.similarities in people according to skin color
B.differences in people according to external biological features
Correct C.the possibility of suffering from a yet undiagnosed physical disease.
D.All of the above

//

Answer Key: C
// The presence of neurological symptoms of disorder without medical substantiation may be indicative of:

Correct A.conversion disorder
B.dymorphic disorder
C.pain disorder
D.hypochondriasis

//

Answer Key: A
// Hypochondriasis is, traditionally:

A.consider different by clinicians
Correct B.difficult to treat
C.easy to treat
D.maniacally based

//

Answer Key: B
Interventions for BDD might include changing avoidance behaviors.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
Somatofrom disorder treatment programs and outcomes may be enhanced by an improved ____________________ understanding of these problems. Correctconceptual

Answer Key: conceptual
// A common perception of healthcare providers is that those with a somatoform disorder are a “____________________.”

A.joy to be around
B.taking psychotropics
C.expected to be psychotic
Correct D.pain in the neck

//

Answer Key: D
Outline the major features of the Five-Factor Model of general personality structure(350-500 words).Outline the major features of the Five-Factor Model of general personality structure

The five factor model outlines five basic personality traits that are consistently seen in individuals in all societies. The five basic traits are extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and open-mindedness (Maddux & Winstead, 2012). These have been used to explain the five general types of personalities.

Extraversion is a personality type that is generally used to describe people who are outgoing and talkative in any social setting. Extraverted people are considered warm, inviting, and kind, however, they can be off-putting to other personality types because they tend to be people who seek thrills (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

Neuroticism is generally the assigned personality trait for those that have high anxiety and are vulnerable and prone to some level of hostility toward others in social settings due to the increased anxiety that the social setting produces (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

Agreeableness tends to come out through character traits such as honesty, cooperation and appreciation for others. People who fall into this category tend to be a follower and not a leader. They will agree to do whatever is asked to keep from being Oster sized by the group. These people tend to help others at all costs and tend to be kind hearted.

Conscientiousness is usually characterized by order, and detail in the personality. Motivation is usually out of desire to be complete, and to be seen as competent in relation to assign tasks (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

Open-mindedness refers to an openness to experiencing new things. Unlike the extravert, the trait of open-mindedness is open to accepting beauty and feelings. This trait likes to see new things presented and likes new approaches to tasks (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

People are either rated high or low (or somewhere in between) in relation to the five personalities. This gives professionals more room to diagnose based on the personality or behavior of a person. There are subtypes of personality disorders within the five that can make treatment more beneficial.

Maddux, J; Winstead, B. (2012). Ps (3rd ed). New York: Routledge.

Provide an overview of the history of “learning disorders.” (350-500 words). Please feel free to elaborate.Provide an overview of the history of “learning disorders.” (350-500 words). Please feel free to elaborate

Learning disorders have always existed in some form or another. From the beginning of time, there have been people who excelled at one thing or another, while others are just complete failures in the same category. There have always been people that have a hard time learning things. The definition of a learning disorder is difficulty learning that which society considers normal and a simple thing to learn. These learning difficulties have only been researched as to why they exist.

The term learning disorder is a very general term for many disorders that may fall under it. A learning disorder can only be labeled that way if most of the population does not suffer from it. A person is suffering from a learning disorder if their achievement is much lower what is expected of others of that age group in connection to social, academic or overall intelligence (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

Due to the fact that there was little focus historically, may be the reasoning behind why some people had a lower level of learning and intelligence. Unlike psychology, which has roots in ancient philosophy, learning disorders are relatively unstudied. It was not until the latter half of the twentieth century before this actually had a name. Even to this day, it is not completely understood why some people are born with learning impairments. Many have speculated that DNA passed down through time have matched up and caused the gene mutation. The other factor may be nature and other things that can affect the growing development of a baby. There is current research about learning disorders and how they are transferred.

Maddux, J & Winstead, B. (2012). Ps (3rd ed). New York: Routledge.

Compare and contrast the etiology of 2 personality disorders.Compare and contrast the etiology of 2 personality disorders.

I will address borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder. BPD was a newly added diagnosis in the DSM III and since the 1970’s BPD has been the most diagnosed, studied, and treated personality disorder Maddux & Winstead, 2012). BPD are mostly seen in personal relationships and deals with instability of the self-image. In the BPD instability of the self-image, it manifests itself as an unstable behavior and the sufferers are usually seen as impulsive in both positive and negative lights. Due to over lapping of symptoms, BPD and bipolar disorder are often diagnosed together. This may also show up during pregnancy and may not have been there previously.

Bipolar is a disorder that is usually familial and characterized by instability of mood (manic and depressive phases) and may be rapid cycling.

While both of these disorders depend on unstable moods or behaviors, the key factor is consistency over time. This would involve determining if the episodes are long acting or short term and if there is a pattern over time. If the episodes are short lived, BPD is generally the diagnosis. If the episodes last longer, bipolar may be presented (Maddux & Winstead, 2012).

Maddux, J; Winstead, B. (2012). Ps (3rd ed). New York: Routledge.

PSYC406 midterm


Question 1 of 40
According to the list of psychiatric disorders provided in the DSM-IV-TR PowerPoint material, a Mood Disorder is diagnosed on:
A.Axis I
B.Axis II
C.Axis IV
D.Axis VI

Answer Key: A
Question 2 of 40
The psychometric term ‘reliability’ refers to:
A.being consistent in your actions
B.consistency of measurement
C.dependability of a test
D.punctuality

Answer Key: B

Question 3 of 40
The statistical concept of psychopathology holds that:
A.infrequently occurring behaviors in a society are normal
B.frequently occurring behaviors in a society are considered normal.
C.constructs of psychopathology are considered valid across cultures
D.frequently occurring behaviors in a society might be considered abnormal

Answer Key: B

Question 4 of 40
The bio-medical model of psychopathology emphasizes the use of:
A.phrenology
B.meridian tapping
C.spinal tapping
D.a classification system

Answer Key: D

Question 5 of 40
Schizophrenia is classified in the DSM-IV on:
A.Axis II
B.Axis III
C.Axis IV
D.Axis I

Answer Key: D

Question 6 of 40
The psychometric term ‘validity’ refers to
A.accurate inferences
B.current
C.unexpired
D.statistical significance

Answer Key: A

Question 7 of 40
The pscyhometric term ‘treatment utility’ refers to:
A.the contribution to known information
B.descriptive validity of a text
C.contribution to improved treatment outcomes
D.high correlations with similar instruments

Answer Key: C

Question 8 of 40
In clinical practice ___________________ interviews are used, while______________ _______interviews are used in research
A.structured; structured
B.unstructured; structured
C.reliable; valid
D.semistructured; semistructured

Answer Key: B

Question 9 of 40
A problem with projective techniques is:
A.you can’t tell the future
B.scoring is difficult
C.normative data is used
D.everything in our inner world originates with our maternal relationships

Answer Key: B

Question 10 of 40
Assessing psychopathology is fraught with potential bias and error.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 11 of 40
According to the text authors, substance abuse claims ________________liv es each year.
A.440,000
B.125,000
C.10,000
D.600,000

Answer Key: D

Question 12 of 40
According to Bowlby, as cited in the journal article for Forum 3, the earliest working models:
A.are formed while a fetus
B.are formed during adolescence
C.are in response to employers
D.are in response to interactions with signficant caregivers

Answer Key: D

Question 13 of 40
Drug abuse in women who report a history of sexual assault is ______ times higher than in women who do not.
A.3
B.4
C.5
D.6

Answer Key: B

Question 14 of 40
According to research findings there is a relationship between childhood attachment and later:
A.antisocial personality disorder
B.schizophrenia
C.bipolar disorder
D.delusional disorder

Answer Key: A

Question 15 of 40
In the journal article assigned to Forum 1, the authors assert that they were able to make conclusions about treatment in the managed care group.
True
False

Answer Key: False

Question 16 of 40
The purpose of the Minami et al. study that is center of Forum 1, was to evaluate the effectiveness of TAU’s delivered in a managed healthcare organization by means of a benchmarking strategy.

Answer Key: benchmarking

Question 17 of 40
According to Mittal and Walker (2007), neurocircuitry implicated in psychotic symptoms may be shared by:
A.circuits controlling heart rate
B.circuits controlling hearing
C.circuits controlling speech
D.circuits controlling dyskinetic movement

Answer Key: D

Question 18 of 40
Consistent with the Mitall and Walker (2007 findings, the group that converted to Axis I psychosis exhibited significantly more movement in:
A.knee jerking motions
B.feet and lower legs
C.ears and head hair
D.face and upper body

Answer Key: D

Question 19 of 40
According to the authors of the journal article for Forum 3, recipients of social support are often:
A.sometimes worse off
B.much happier
C.very pleased
D.none of the above

Answer Key: A

Question 20 of 40
According to the journal article for Forum 3, recipients of social support may experience:
A.lowered self-esteem
B.feelings of indebtedness
C.receiving the wrong kind of support
D.all of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 21 of 40
The authors of the journal article for Forum 3 hypothesize:
A.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from providing instrumental support during adolescence
B.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from instrumental support in adulthood
C.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from emotional support in adulthood
D.having insecure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from emotional support in adulthood

Answer Key: C

Question 22 of 40
Along with personal denial, ___________________ _ is also a barrier to woment entering treatment for substance abuse.
A.abstract behavior
B.spousal support
C.familial denial
D.None of the above

Answer Key: C

Question 23 of 40
Genetic factors contributing to substance abuse and addiction are easily separated from environmental influences.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 24 of 40
There are 3 agonists approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. in the treatment of opiate dependence.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 25 of 40
Controlled drinking consists of:
A.BSCT
B.a good startle response
C.a particular response
D.having shots

Answer Key: A

Question 26 of 40
Mood disorders occur twice as often in men than in women.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 27 of 40
Autistic children may have ______________ of anterior areas of the brain and __________________ of posterior areas.
A.overgrowth; undergrowth
B.undergrowth; overgrowth
C.undergrowth; undergrowth
D.overgrowth; overgrowth

Answer Key: A

Question 28 of 40
An individual who hears voices, reflects feelings of persecution, and with flattened affect may be diagnosed as:
A.diabolical schizoid
B.paranoid schizophrenic
C.schizotypal
D.delusional disordered

Answer Key: B

Question 29 of 40
The quality of maternal care may affect the development of the ___________________ ____ system.
A.anxiety response
B.thyroid
C.pituitary-adrenal
D.limbic

Answer Key: C

Question 30 of 40
The connection between cognitive science and cognitive therapy is well established.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 31 of 40
A biological signal involving both chemical reactions and electrical shifts is called:
A.axon
B.neuropathway development
C.psychopathology
D.action potential

Answer Key: D

Question 32 of 40
Cognitive-behavioralists assert maladaptive behavior is the result of the way we ________________ and ___________________ _.
A.process data; respond to the environment
Correct B.process information; perceive ourselves
C.perceive others; process stimulii
D.perceive ourselves; perceive others

Answer Key: B

Question 33 of 40
A neurostransmitter involved in reinforcement and chemical addiction is dopamine.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 34 of 40
Central to the study of psychopathology is a definition of ___________________ __.
A.a counselor
B.psychology
C.society
D.culture

Answer Key: D

Question 35 of 40
The goal of cognitive therapy is to:
A.identify negative cognitions
B.test negative cognitions
C.develop new schemas
D.all of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 36 of 40
Beck’s cognitive therapy is now well-established, effective treatment for depression.

A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 37 of 40
Provide a synopsis of the controversy over the inclusion and exclusion of particular paraphilias in the DSM. Include your opinion. Be sure to elaborate with scholarly presentation, style and argument.

Sexual dysfunction and paraphilia are contemporary views that identify two primary categories of sexual disorder. Paraphilia, also known as sexual deviation, is categorized as any of a group of psychosexual disorders that are characterized by sexual fantasies, feelings, or activities involving a nonhuman object. Paraphilia can also be considered when involving a non-consenting partner such as a child, or also the act of pain or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner. A history of sexual abuse may be a contributing factor in the development of paraphilia. The inclusion of particular paraphilia within the DSM innovations was cultural and ethnic group variation, which included age and laboratory and physical examination findings. In contrast, what was excluded was information concerning patient’s etiology, pathology, and treatment because the material was considered to be too theoretically specific. Nevertheless, the material was being utilized as the residing material on age, prevalence, and familial history (Maddux, 2012). In my opinion, when we exclude information it always points to fitting an agenda whether it is a small personal, or globally, excluding information can only hurt, without all known facts no true results can be accepted.

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 38 of 40
What are the advantages and limitations of viewing addictive behavior as diseases? As learned behaviors? As immoral and sinful? (450-600 words). Elaborate.

Starting with advantages of viewing addictive behavior as diseases, I would have to say that an addictive behavior is at least the beginning of losing independency. Viewing an addictive behavior as a disease provides an insight that something is wrong and that person is losing identity because of it. Individuality is identity, and being just like everyone else is taking away from your own personality. Liking similar things and being the same person are to very different things. Taking note that an addictive personality creates barriers between relationships and allows for a separation between what may have been at one time a good relationship. Any new or previous existing relationship has to now take a back seat to that addictive person’s new habit. Another advantage in viewing an addictive behavior as a disease is that it gives people a means to cure that disease, as they say admitting you have a problem is the first step. People have the tendency to live their lives without acknowledging that there are so many things that are wrong or that we are doing wrong to each other because we have such a mixture or standards.

 

When you become addicted to something you become a slave to it. Looking at it from an immoral standpoint, an addictive behavior, depending on someone’s environmental background or financial situation, a person could end up in worse case doing various immoral things to satisfy that addiction. Addiction is a condition in which the body must have a substance to avoid physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms. The first stage of addiction is dependence, during which the search for that specific substance dominates an individual’s life. An addict eventually develops tolerance, which then forces that person to consume larger and larger amounts of the substance to sustain the same effect. From a sinful perspective, anything you put before God is sinful, God is number one, and doing things that He says is sinful is going against Him, and if you’re not with Him, you by definition are against Him. The only thing you should be addicted to is God and being a slave to Him is acceptable because whether we want to admit it or not we are all a slave to something. If we need it to survive, we are slaves to it, money, food, and hopefully God’s law.

 

With limitations of viewing addictive behavior as diseases, I would have to say that certain learned behavior plays significance. Sometimes people become addicted to certain things that help them cope with life. Some people are addicted to exercising, because it helps them relieve stress, but too much of anything can be harmful. Some addictions are harmless within the individuals set of standards, one person could easily cut off the amount they need while another could become less and less satisfied with what they receive from it (Maddux, 2012).

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 39 of 40
What would be the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing specific illicit substances? Provide a response that goes beyond personal opinion.(450-600 words) Elaborate.

Some of the advantages of legalizing specific illicit substances would be that certain substances are perceived as harmless in various people’s perspective and in truth they can truly handle themselves around specific illicit substances. There are people out in the world that truly can take drugs or use illicit substances and be responsible and have no repercussion from using them. People argue that the government shouldn’t have any say in what we do with ourselves and how we live our lives, which I agree with but, I also believe they are required to protect us, even from ourselves. Not in every case of course, not to the point where they abuse their power and authoritative principles. The advantages of legalization could be taxing it regularly, and minimizing illicit substance trafficking, but at the expense of potentially harming people more than we could possibly imagine.

 

Every day people are receiving mixed messages about how they should feel about politics, fashion, morals, sexuality, marriage, children, etc. By legalizing something like marijuana, you are opening the door for more terrible things to come. Marijuana can be easily laced with other substances foreign to the human body much worse and much more addicting. Introducing these substances to people that have never had them before and at unknown doses can be catastrophic. Opening the door for more and more children to gain access to illicit substances than already have been introduced to them is creating an early dependency and only God knows what is in them. People can say that by legalizing all specific illicit substances, they can eliminate a large market that gangs covet, and eliminate the drug trafficking of that substance specifically. However, that frankly is just not true; by opening more business of that caliber just allows more trafficking to come through, all they need to do is slip in more addictive measures into the product to hook the consumers.

 

The disadvantages of legalizing specific illicit substances are simple, because people would abuse them just as they do alcohol and other things. Right now people use all sorts of illicit substances under the radar, but if they had easier access to them it would be so much easier to be an addict and also more accepted by societal values. Drugs abuse and deaths related would probably be an epidemic and eventually would create more problems in society than we have already. Drug addiction’s first stage is obviously dependence, during which the search for that specific illicit substance dominates that person’s life. A drug addict will eventually develop a tolerance to the illicit substance, in which that person will need to consume larger and larger amounts of the illicit substance to sustain the same effect. Legalization of these could be the worst thing ever done by society, or it could be fine, only time can tell (Maddux, 2012).

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 40 of 40
Eating disorders may derive from a fear of fatness.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

SOCI315 quiz 4


A person who insists that he can’t have a “real birthday” without a special cake that says Happy Birthday on it is expressing:

A.a food aversion based on religious belief
B.a universal food preference
C.how family descent lines are reflected in food preferences
Correct D.the specific meaning of the event through a specific food
Answer Key: D
Cultural rituals involving food are present at which of the following in the US:

A.Weddings
B.Funerals
C.Specific holidays, like New Year’s Day, Independence Day and St. Patrick’s Day
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D
Cultural relativism is an important component of effectively studying worldwide patterns of food and culture.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: True
The concept of the 2nd shift centers around the fact that:

A.Wives and mothers have a total workload of 70-85 hours/week
B.Women have to work two paying jobs in order to pay the bills
C.Women do most of the Provisioning
Correct D.Both A & C are correct
Answer Key: D
Men’s work tasks are seen as more prestigious than that of women because:

A.they are assumed to be higher-skill tasks
B.they allow a person to exhibit creativity
C.they are considered more uncommon
Correct D.all of the above
Answer Key: D
Patriarchal cultures include only the least industrialized nations.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: False
Some of the theories that explain why quality foods are reserved for males include:

A.The Non-Practical Theory
Correct B.The Gender-Value theory
C.The Social Conflict Theory
D.All of the above
Answer Key: B
The consequences of women being relegated to poor quality food includes:

A.being too thin
B.sugar not being very important
Correct C.poor health
D.all of the above
Answer Key: C
American Indian Fry Bread is considered a traditional quality food.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: False
Research has shown that Asians are intrinsically more intelligent than Africans and Europeans as discussed in the Rice Farming Theory.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: False

Psyc406 quiz 1


In the journal article assigned to Forum 1, the authors assert that they were able to make conclusions about treatment.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: False
The purpose of the Minami et al. study assigned for Forum 1 was to evaluate the effectiveness of TAU’s delivered in a managed healthcare organization by means of a Correctbench marking strategy.

Answer Key: benchmarking
Limitations of the Minami et al. Forum 1 Journal Article called for caution in interpretation of the results.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: True
According to the list of psychiatric disorders provided in the DSM-IV-TR PowerPoint material, a Mood Disorder is diagnosed on:

A.Axis II
B.Axis VI
C.Axis IV
Correct D.Axis I
Answer Key: D
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV-TR is authored by:

A.American Psychological Association
B.American Philosophial Association
C.National Alliance for Mental Illness
Correct D.American Psychiatric Association
Answer Key: D
The victims of Katrina in New Orleans that have been displaced and receiving mental health treatment might receive specific attention on Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR as follows:

A.Occupational problems
B.Problems related to the social environment
C.Housing and Economic Problems
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D
Abnormal, in terms of pathological psychological phenomenon means:

A.away from the norm
B.statistically deviant
C.behavior occurring infrequently
Correct D.all of the above
Answer Key: D
The terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive” refer to the effectiveness, or ineffectiveness of a person’s behavior.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
Compare and contrast the social constructivist perspective of psychopathology to that of the essentialist perspective. (350-500 words).Essentialism states that there are behavioral attributes and attitudes that make up every person. The essential thing of a person is basically what it is. A person is made up of essential behaviors, genes and other attributes which identify us as people. Without the differences that we have, there would be no uniqueness and we would all be the same. This is controversial from the beginning and has been the topic of debate for centuries.

Constructivism is the theory of knowledge. This states that each person gains knowledge by experience and trial and error. Each experience is what makes us who we are. This type of theory is based on learning theories and educational reform.

So using both of these ideals, the fact that we are who we are born to be by using learning theories, can help shape who we are and what we become as far as psychopathology perspectives. This study is basically the pathology of psychology and what behaviors mold and shape us as a society.

Maddux, James; Winstead, Barbara; & Gosselin, Jennifer. (n.d.). Conceptions of psychopathology: a social constructionist perspective. Retrieved from http://www.caleblack.com.

Diagnostic criteria and constructs appear to have consistent implications and meanings across different cultures.

Incorrect
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
There is probably not a DSM-IV disorder for which gender differences have been problematic.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
About ________ percent of of individuals who attempt or commit suicide have a mental disorder.

A.30%
Correct B.90%
C.10%
D.45%
Answer Key: B
There appears to be plenty of criticism of DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, ______________________________.

A.none suggest abandonment
B.benefits outweigh costs
C.there is fault with the language
Correct D.all of the above
Answer Key: D
Depression seems to be primarily a contemporary phenomenon without a long-term history of conception.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
Prevalence rates of depression:

A.are consistent over time
B.have diminished with the advent of psychotropic medications
Correct C.vary between 4-6%
D.cannot be determined
Answer Key: C
Define the terms “endogenous” and “reactive.”Endogenous depression is a form of clinical depression. It is also characterized as a major depression that produces strong feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness toward oneself.

Reactive depression is also a form of clinical depression. It occurs when disturbing events occur such as the loss of a loved one and is often looked upon as normal grief.

Mood disorders occur twice as often in women than in men.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
Describe the negative self-schema model and the impact on the development of symptoms of depression.Negative self-schema model is one of the cognitive theories of depression by Beck hypothesized “that depressed people exhibit systematic biases in their processing of negative information” (Maddux & Winstead, 2012, p. 216). This theory came from Becks findings on the thoughts and dreams of some of his patients who suffered from depression. It was found many of the patients often expressed shared themes of self-punishment, loss, and deprivation. The negative self-schema was created to express the relationship between a person’s negative thoughts and feelings associated with oneself thus leading to depression. The schemata can be triggered by negative cues, and people who are at a higher risk for suffering from depression tend to remember and focus more on negative information over positive information. There is evidence to prove the pessimism of depressed patients is realistic, which is a phenomenon known as depressive realism or sadder but wiser effect. The more a person lives a negative cognitive lifestyle, combined with the stressors of everyday life, increases their depressive symptoms significantly.

References: Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012). Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.) Routledge.

Soci315 quiz 3


Most Buddhist Asians eat animal flesh, notwithstanding the ahimsa principles of their faith because:

A.ahimsa only is required if you are living in or visiting India
Correct B.poor people can’t get adequate protein in their diet if they don’t
C.most Asian Buddhists don’t really understand their faith; it’s too complicated
D.mendicant monks are required to eat whatever they are given
Answer Key: B
Harris would say that the underlying reason for Middle Eastern religions having a pork aversion is:

A.people have deep religious convictions
Correct B.pigs are not suited to hot, dry climates
C.pork tastes like human flesh and eating pork predisposes people to become people-eaters
D.pork meat is more easily spoiled than mutton or lamb
Answer Key: B
Discovering additional practical advantages of a religious injunction,

A.proves that science is more important than religion
Correct B.allows scientists to see how a particular belief system benefitted a culture
C.allows scientists to study cultures that are similar to their own
D.allows scientists to prove that Harris’ theories are incorrect
Answer Key: B
Turkeys in pre-Columbian North America were domesticated primarily to serve as:

A.alarm-guards on corn fields
B.pets
Correct C.meat
D.All of the above
Answer Key: C
There are some pig-raising Muslims! They live in:

A.a remote part of Yemen
B.the seaside of Bali, in Indonesia
Correct C.a cool forest area in North Africa
D.the high mountains of Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan
Answer Key: C
All of the below are true about horsemeat aversion from Roman times through the 12th century CE except:

Correct A.horsemeat eating was very popular in central Asia
B.horses were crucial to war making
C.horses were too costly to feed for milking and meat
D.horses were considered bad-tasting
Answer Key: A
A prominent anthropologist suggests that Islam was only enthusiastically adopted by:

A.people in desert climates
Correct B.people in places where pig aversion made economic sense
C.people who already had an aversion to drunkenness [alcohol aversion]
D.people who preferred to offer animal sacrifices to animist gods
Answer Key: B
The major reason why horsemeat became a synonym in America for low-quality meat – although nutritionally it is anything but – is because

A.horse-lovers used public meetings to raise awareness of horse intelligence and companionship
Correct B.horsemeat packers were not government-inspected like other meat-packers, so spoilage was more common
C.horses are beloved for the same reason that dogs and cats are – they are pets
D.hippophagy became a prevalent disease among those who ate horsemeat
Answer Key: B
A practical, non-religious reason why a ban on killing cattle makes sense in India is:

A.if people get used to eating beef, their food costs will go up and they will go bankrupt
Correct B.if people kill their cows during hard times, they will lose all the secondary benefits of cow products
C.if people are allowed to kill cows, the Brahmins will take all the cows and the people will starve
D.if people are allowed to kill cows, the whole social structure of the caste system would collapse, and therefore society would collapse
Answer Key: B
The value of cattle to an Indian farmer includes:

A.dung for cooking fires
B.dung for fertilizer
C.milk, cheese and butter
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D

 

Soci315 quiz 2


Which early hominin food practice has been theorized to have been associated with brain-size expansion, development of language and early social organization:

A.food aversions
B.milk-drinking
C.food sharing
Incorrect D.grinding seeds to make bread
Answer Key: C
Across all cultures, humans are most likely to share food with:

Correct A.Family and close friends
B.co-workers
C.members of their father’s clan
D.members of their mother’s clan
Answer Key: A
Food sharing within a social group helped our ancestors survive. In foraging societies food sharing was handled in what way?

A.By a system of redistribution
Correct B.Individuals and teams collect food, which is shared with the entire group.
C.Everyone is involved, only it is more hierarchical
D.None of the above
Answer Key: B
In foraging cultures hierarchy of power is the major component of the society.

Incorrect
True
False
Answer Key: False
The most common dating activity is:

A.Going out to a movie
B.Participating in a sport activity
Correct C.Going out for a meal
D.None above
Answer Key: C
If you marry a spouse from another culture some factors that come into play are:

A.Identity
B.Loyalty
C.Gender
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D
Some foods are termed “comfort foods” because they are

A.metabolizes very slowly so it makes you feel full longer

B.it has a very high mouth-feel index, so it “tastes good”

C.they can have a biochemical calming effect

Incorrect D.all of the above
Answer Key: C
Desert people tend to have strict hospitality rules because:

A.of the severity of the climate
B.of tradition
C.they have strict rules about much in their culture
Incorrect D.all above
Answer Key: A
A sociologist has studied the impact of family meals together on lower divorce rates. The positive impact on youth includes:

better grades and pro-social behaviors at home and at school
better grades and more prosocial behaviors, but only at school
ess regulation of emotion and more impulsivity
earlier and more adventurous sex
more likely to join a gang

Correct A.better grades and pro-social behaviors at home and at school
B.earlier and more adventurous sex
C.more likely to join a gang
D.better grades and more prosocial behaviors, but only at school
Answer Key: A
In Industrial societies, the equivalent on “in-kind taxation” (handing over food) is redistribution.

Incorrect
True
False
Answer Key: False

 

Psyc406 quiz 2


In the journal article authored by Mittal and Walker (2007),__________ adolescents were considered at risk for psychosis, and of that number _________ participants converted to an Axis I psychosis over the _________ -year period.

A.50; 6; 10
Correct B.40; 10; 4
C.10; 2; 1
D.35; 10; 4
Answer Key: B
According to Mittal and Walker (2007), neurocircuitry implicated in psychotic symptoms may be shared by:

A.circuits controlling heart rate
B.circuits controlling hearing
Correct C.circuits controlling dyskinetic movement
D.circuits controlling speech
Answer Key: C
Of interest to Mittal and Walker (2007) is the prediction of ______________ by assessing movement abnormalities.

A.affective psychosis
Correct B.schizophrenia
C.schizoaffective disorder
D.dissociative fugue
Answer Key: B
Mittal and Walker (2007) assert the present findings support the theory that hyperkinesis and psychotic symptoms share neural mechanisms.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: True
Consistent with the Mitall and Walker (2007 findings, the group that converted to Axis I psychosis exhibited significantly more movement in:

A.feet and lower legs
B.knee jerking motions
Correct C.face and upper body
D.toes and fingers
Answer Key: C
The human brain probably consists of about _________________ neurons, each with about ________________ connections.

A.1000 trillion; 100 million
B.1000 billion; 10 million
C.100 million; 10 thousand
Correct D.100 billion; 10 thousand
Answer Key: D
A neurostransmitter involved in reinforcement and chemical addiction is:

A.gamma-aminobutyric acid
B.serotonin
Correct C.dopamine
D.glutamate
Answer Key: C
A biological signal involving both chemical reactions and electrical shifts is called:

A.a synapse
Correct B.an action potential
C.an axon
D.a dendrite
Answer Key: B
An example of a drug action used to treat anxiety is called:

Correct A.GABA agonist
B.MAO inhibitor
C.DA receptor blocker
D.SSRI
Answer Key: A
Treating a symptom of mental disorder with psychotropic medication will generally treat the cause as well.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
Autistic children may have ______________ of anterior areas of the brain and __________________ of posterior areas.

A.undergrowth; overgrowth
B.undergrowth; undergrowth
C.overgrowth; overgrowth
Correct D.overgrowth; undergrowth
Answer Key: D
The quality of maternal care may affect the development of the _______________________ system.

A.parasympathetic nervous
B.central nervous
C.circulatory
Correct D.pituitary-adrenal
Answer Key: D
Schizophrenia is typically diagnosed between that ages of _______ and _______ years.

A.15; 20
B.18; 25
C.20; 30
Correct D.20; 25
Answer Key: D
Examples of positive symptoms of schizophrenia include:

A.an excess of ideas
B.hallucinations
C.bizarre behavior
Correct D.all of the above
Answer Key: D
An individual who hears voices, reflects feelings of persecution, and with flattened affect may be diagnosed as:

A.undifferentiated schizophrenic
B.disorganized schizophrenic
C.catatonic
Correct D.paranoid schizophrenic
Answer Key: D
Describe the effects of genetic abnormalities affecting dopamine activity in relationship to the development of schizophrenia.Genetic abnormalities affecting dopamine have a deep connection to the dopamine neurons guiding attention, so it is thought that disturbances in this process may lead to the problems of attention and thought found in people with schizophrenia, this can very well be passed down to offspring but only if triggered by different situations

Describe your observation of behavior of an individual in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. What could you expect to see?The first stage of schizophrenia is the Prodromal phase. Here the symptoms are much like a feeling of depression or a feeling of anxiety. People are rarely diagnosed during this stage because they have not begun to experience positive symptoms yet. This stage can vary in the length of how long it will last.

 

Psyc406 quiz 1


Question 1 of 18 2.0 Points

In the journal article assigned to Forum 1, the authors assert that they were able to make conclusions about treatment.

 

True
False

 

Answer Key: False
Question 2 of 18 2.0 Points

 

The purpose of the Minami et al. study assigned for Forum 1 was to evaluate the effectiveness of TAU’s delivered in a managed healthcare organization by means of a bench marking strategy.

Answer Key: benchmarking
Question 3 of 18 2.0 Points

Limitations of the Minami et al. Forum 1 Journal Article called for caution in interpretation of the results.

 

True
False

 

Answer Key: True
Question 4 of 18 2.0 Points

According to the list of psychiatric disorders provided in the DSM-IV-TR PowerPoint material, a Mood Disorder is diagnosed on:

 

A.Axis II
B.Axis VI
C.Axis IV
D.Axis I

 

Answer Key: D
Question 5 of 18 2.0 Points

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV-TR is authored by:

 

A.American Psychological Association
B.American Philosophial Association
C.National Alliance for Mental Illness
D.American Psychiatric Association

 

Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 18 2.0 Points

The victims of Katrina in New Orleans that have been displaced and receiving mental health treatment might receive specific attention on Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR as follows:

 

A.Occupational problems
B.Problems related to the social environment
C.Housing and Economic Problems
D.All of the above

 

Answer Key: D
Question 7 of 18 2.0 Points

Abnormal, in terms of pathological psychological phenomenon means:

 

A.away from the norm
B.statistically deviant
C.behavior occurring infrequently
D.all of the above

 

Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 18 2.0 Points

The terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive” refer to the effectiveness, or ineffectiveness of a person’s behavior.

 

A. True
B. False

 

Answer Key: True
Question 9 of 18 5.0 Points

Compare and contrast the social constructivist perspective of psychopathology to that of the essentialist perspective. (350-500 words).

Essentialism states that there are behavioral attributes and attitudes that make up every person. The essential thing of a person is basically what it is. A person is made up of essential behaviors, genes and other attributes which identify us as people. Without the differences that we have, there would be no uniqueness and we would all be the same. This is controversial from the beginning and has been the topic of debate for centuries. Constructivism is the theory of knowledge. This states that each person gains knowledge by experience and trial and error. Each experience is what makes us who we are. This type of theory is based on learning theories and educational reform. So using both of these ideals, the fact that we are who we are born to be by using learning theories, can help shape who we are and what we become as far as psychopathology perspectives. This study is basically the pathology of psychology and what behaviors mold and shape us as a society. Maddux, James; Winstead, Barbara; & Gosselin, Jennifer. (n.d.). Conceptions of psychopathology: a social constructionist perspective. Retrieved from http://www.caleblack.com.

Question 10 of 18 2.0 Points

Diagnostic criteria and constructs appear to have consistent implications and meanings across different cultures.

 

A. True
B. False

 

Answer Key: False
Question 11 of 18 2.0 Points

There is probably not a DSM-IV disorder for which gender differences have been problematic.

 

A. True
B. False

 

Answer Key: False
Question 12 of 18 2.0 Points

About ________ percent of of individuals who attempt or commit suicide have a mental disorder.

 

A.30%
B.90%
C.10%
D.45%

 

Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 18 2.0 Points

There appears to be plenty of criticism of DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, ______________________________.

 

A.none suggest abandonment
B.benefits outweigh costs
C.there is fault with the language
D.all of the above

 

Answer Key: D
Question 14 of 18 2.0 Points

Depression seems to be primarily a contemporary phenomenon without a long-term history of conception.

 

A. True
B. False

 

Answer Key: False
Question 15 of 18 2.0 Points

Prevalence rates of depression:

 

A.are consistent over time
B.have diminished with the advent of psychotropic medications
C.vary between 4-6%
D.cannot be determined

 

Answer Key: C
Question 16 of 18 2.5 Points

Define the terms “endogenous” and “reactive.”

Endogenous depression is a form of clinical depression. It is also characterized as a major depression that produces strong feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness toward oneself. Reactive depression is also a form of clinical depression. It occurs when disturbing events occur such as the loss of a loved one and is often looked upon as normal grief.

Question 17 of 18 2.0 Points

Mood disorders occur twice as often in women than in men.

 

A. True
B. False

 

Answer Key: True
Question 18 of 18 2.5 Points

Describe the negative self-schema model and the impact on the development of symptoms of depression.

Negative self-schema model is one of the cognitive theories of depression by Beck hypothesized “that depressed people exhibit systematic biases in their processing of negative information” (Maddux & Winstead, 2012, p. 216). This theory came from Becks findings on the thoughts and dreams of some of his patients who suffered from depression. It was found many of the patients often expressed shared themes of self-punishment, loss, and deprivation. The negative self-schema was created to express the relationship between a person’s negative thoughts and feelings associated with oneself thus leading to depression. The schemata can be triggered by negative cues, and people who are at a higher risk for suffering from depression tend to remember and focus more on negative information over positive information. There is evidence to prove the pessimism of depressed patients is realistic, which is a phenomenon known as depressive realism or sadder but wiser effect. The more a person lives a negative cognitive lifestyle, combined with the stressors of everyday life, increases their depressive symptoms significantly. References: Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012). Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.) Routledge.

 

PBHE427 quiz week 2


Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity; as defined by what organization?

A.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
B.The American Public Health Association
Correct C.The World Health Organization
D.The American Heart Association
Answer Key: C
Quality of Life is a measurement that represents…

A.An overall feeling of well being
B.An overall feeling of healing
C.An overall feeling of goodness
Incorrect D.An overall feeling of complete understanding
Answer Key: A
Which study of epidemiology focuses on describing the amount of disease in a population and he characteristics and traits of the people within the population:

A.Genetic Epidemiology
Correct B.Descriptive Epidemiology
C.Social Epidemiology
D.Behavioral Epidemiology
Answer Key: B
According to your text, country that has a lower per capita income due to the absence of industrializaion and infrasturcture, when compared to other countries, is considered:

A.An overdeveloped country
B.A poor country
C.An establised country
Correct D.An underdeveloped country
Answer Key: D
According to the text, a vehicle-borne transmission happens when diseases are transmitted by ____________ and ________.

A.Contaminated water and people.
B.Contaminated water and air.
Correct C.Contaminated food and water.
D.Contaminated food and air.
Answer Key: C
According to your text, descriptive epidemiology is defined by 3 types of variables: Time variables, personal variables, and

A.Sequential variables
Correct B.Place variables
C.Object variables
D.Indirect variables
Answer Key: B
According to your text, what is the greatest contribution of descriptive epidemiology: It allows for the development of

A.Definitions
Correct B.Hypotheses
C.Resolutions
D.Samples
Answer Key: B
The null hypothesis may be expressed as:

A.H1
B.H2
C.NH
Correct D.Ho
Answer Key: D
The following is NOT a demographic risk, as discussed in your text is

A.Age
B.Race
Correct C.Height
D.Socioeconomic Status
Answer Key: C
According to your text, when discussing place variables, the number of people in a community is called

A.Population Density
Incorrect B.Population Concentration
C.Sample Clustering
D.Sample Size
Answer Key: A