PSYC406 Final

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Limitations of the Minami et al. Forum 1 journal article called for caution in interpretation of the results.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: True
// According to the list of psychiatric disorders provided in the DSM-IV-TR PowerPoint material, a Mood Disorder is diagnosed on:

Correct A.Axis I
B.Axis II
C.Axis III
D.Axis IV

//

Answer Key: A
// The terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive” refer to:

A.statistical occurence of behaviors
B.conditions for detaining mentally ill patients
C.strict legal definitions of mental illness
Correct D.effectiveness or ineffectivenss of a person’s behavior

//

Answer Key: D
// The statistical concept of psychopathology holds that:

Correct A.frequently occurring behaviors in a society are considered normal.
B.infrequently occurring behaviors in a society are normal.
C.Western constructs of psychopathology are considered valid across cultures
D.frequently occurring behaviors in a society might be considered abnormal

//

Answer Key: A
// The concept that psychopathology is an abstract idea that is not scientifically constructed is known as:

A.A legal model of disease
Correct B.social contructivism
C.Methods of balancing dysfunctional humours in the body
D.The “Harmful Dysfunction” model.

//

Answer Key: B
// According to Mittal and Walker (2007), neurocircuitry implicated in psychotic symptoms may be shared by:

A.circuits controlling heart rate
Correct B.circuits controlling dyskinetic movement
C.circuits controlling hearing
D.circuits controlling speech

//

Answer Key: B
// The cultural dimension of psychopathology:

Correct A.points out the variability of mental illness manifestations.
B.assumes changing brain chemistry through pharmacology as a treatment for psychopathology
C.assumes brain structure anomaly as a factor in psychopathology
D.All of the above

//

Answer Key: A
// According to the course text, the term “race”:

A.regards everything in our inner world as originating from our relationship with our biological mother.
B.addresses questions of personal authenticity
Correct C.may be considered an outdated term
D.None of the above

//

Answer Key: C
// The most convenient data for analysis of prevalence rates of a particular psychiatric disorder are obtained:

A.by conducting unbiased experiments.
B.by contacting people by phone
Correct C.in clinical settings
D.by using prison population samples

//

Answer Key: C
// According to the course text, an indicator of the brain’s complexity is:

Correct A.it consists of about 100 billion neurons
B.each neuron has around 1000 connections
C.mechanistic psychological structures
D.some brains have transient processes and others do not

//

Answer Key: A
// Treating a symptom effectively does not imply

A.Using ECT therapies as a first choice
B.Always administering medications for all mental disorders
Correct C.the cause of the symptom is being treated
D.All of the above

//

Answer Key: C
// According to the authors of the journal article for Forum 3, recipients of social support are often:

Correct A.worse off
B.better off
C.happier
D.well-adjusted

//

Answer Key: A
// According to the course text, rat pups receiving more “mothering” develop stress response systems that produce ___________ levels of _____________ in response to stress.

A.higher; dopamine
B.normal; thyroidol
C.lower; acetylcholinase
Correct D.lower; adrenal hormones

//

Answer Key: D
// In psychological testing, the term “validity” refers to:

A.negative predictive power
Correct B.support of test scores by theory and evidence
C.consistency of measurement
D.positive predictive power

//

Answer Key: B
// Assessing psychopathology is an event fraught with:

Correct A.bias and error
B.anxiety and agitation in subjects
C.frustration of examiners
D.financial hardship for test developers

//

Answer Key: A
// According to the authors of Forum 4 (Week 5) journal article:

A.PD and GAD are the same thing
B.GAD is rare
C.PD occurs more frequently thant GAD
Correct D.GAD and PD are common and costly

//

Answer Key: D
// The analysis completed by Siev and Chambless (Forum 4 Week 5) suggests:

Correct A.CT and RT effect similar changes in the areas of general anxiety
B.CT is superior to RT in areas of general anxiety
C.RT is ineffective in the areas of general anxiety
D.CT is ineffective in treating general anxiety

//

Answer Key: A
// Anxiety disorder theory derives from:

A.social causation, sociological perspectives, existential development
Correct B.medical, bio-medical, disease-like states
C.critical theory, social deviance, material life
D.social values; critical mass; social causation

//

Answer Key: B
// Depression is recognized as a __________ with fears of a _______________ among researchers.

A.women’s disease; resurgence in men
B.social phenomenon; complete cure
Correct C.public health concern; depression epidemic.
D.genetic anomaly; misdiagnosis

//

Answer Key: C
Compare and contrast oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.Oppositional defiant disorder is the milder of the two disorders and is often diagnosed much sooner. Children with this tend to show patterns of “disobedient, hostile, defiant behavior toward authority figures such as parents, teachers, daycare workers, etc.” (Black Mental Health Net, n.d.).

Children with conduct disorder not only break the rules, but have no regard for other people’s rights or feelings. This disorder has been linked to this genetics.

Black Mental Health Net. (n.d.). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Retrieved from http://www.blackmentalhealthnet.com

// The link between and ____________ and ________________ has been recognized for centuries.

A.poor mothering; Type A personality disorder
Correct B.adverse environments; depression
C.severe stress disorder; secure atttachment
D.All of the above

//

Answer Key: B
// The most commonly observed Axis II disorder in adulthood ADHD is:

A.borderline personality disorder
Correct B.antisocial personality disorder
C.narcissistice personality disorder
D.sociopathic personality disorder

//

Answer Key: B
// Sayal (1989) notes that the poor are often identified as:

A.cultural deviants
B.mentally ill
C.socially inept
Correct D.culturally deprived

//

Answer Key: D
// Positive symptoms of schizophrenia might include:

A.high levels of motivation
Correct B.delusions and hallucinations
C.anhedonia and flattened affect
D.religious convictions

//

Answer Key: B
// The prevalence of personality disorders in clinical settings is estimated to be:

A.18-20%
B.5-10%
C.15-20%
Correct D.50% +

//

Answer Key: D
A primary goal of in the journal article for Forum 5 was to examine interrater validity of ADHD subtypes in adults in relation to patterns of comorbidity.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: False
// The study that is the subject of Forum #6 sought to clarify the validity of ADHD in adults by examining _____________ of impairment and _____________ among Axis I and Axis II.

Correct A.predictors; subtype differences
B.clusters; controls
C.subtype similarities; predictors
D.subtype differences; comorbidity

//

Answer Key: A
A common misconception concerning personality disorders is that they are _______________. Correctuntreatable

Answer Key: untreatable
Personality disorders may be thought of as extreme variants of certain personality dimensions.

Correct
True
False
Answer Key: True
// The term “psychopath” now refers to:

A.serial killers
B.sociopathic liars
Correct C.extreme ASPD
D.cognitive and social dissonance syndrome

//

Answer Key: C
// Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence can be found on/in:

A.school playgrounds
B.most families
Correct C.Axis I
D.Axis II

//

Answer Key: C
// The most difficult personality disorder to treat is:

A.borderline
B.OCD
C.narcissistic
Correct D.ASPD

//

Answer Key: D
// An individual with and excessive and pervasive need to be taken care of leading to submissiveness, clinging, and fear of separation might be diagnosed with:

A.Schizotypal PD
B.RAD
Correct C.Dependent PD
D.BPD

//

Answer Key: C
// Somatization is relatively ________________ in the general health system.

A.dynamic
B.extraordinarily simplistic
C.valid in-vivo
Correct D.common

//

Answer Key: D
// Characteristics of ____________________ include symptoms of a neurological disorder without the identification of one.

A.Hypochondriasis
B.Body dysmorphia
Correct C.Conversion disorder
D.Pain disorder

//

Answer Key: C
// Attribution theory represents a process wherein we make attributions about:

A.cause and effect
B.controllability and results
C.stigma and employment
Correct D.cause and controllability

//

Answer Key: D
// The purpose of the Capstone Forum journal article was to:

Correct A.determine how stigma predicts attitudes
B.determine how unemployment effects attitude
C.determine how attitudes impact behavior
D.determine how proxies influence attitude

//

Answer Key: A
Train-place programs are the same as supported employment programs.

Correct
A. True
B. False
Answer Key: False
// Data for the Capstone Forum journal article and study were derived from:

A.KEST
B.PSYCE
C.LPGA
Correct D.TESS

//

Answer Key: D
// According to the authors of the Capstone Forum journal article, there are 2 models explaing stigma, which are identified as:

A.fear and jealousy
B.fear and dangerousness
C.anxiety and stereotyping
Correct D.responsibility and dangerousness

//

Answer Key: D
Compare and contrast the neurobiology of addiction with the sociocultural views of chemical dependency. Please elaborate (400-600 words).Neurobiology of addiction focuses on pinpointing neuro-adaptive mechanisms in the circuits of the brain that facilitate the transition that change casual substance abuse to a level of chronic addiction. Many studies of addiction revolve around the effects of the substances ingested and their effects on the dopamine system and how the substances enhance the natural stimulants such as sex and food or a specific event. There are four circuits that have been identified in the involvement of drug abuse and addiction. This network are stimulated by a surge in dopamine levels and are connected via direct and indirect pathways. This enables psychoactive substances to reinforce and enhance feelings of reward, motivation, memory and learning at least 3-5 times higher than in the natural.

Sociocultural views in relation to chemical dependency rely heavily on social norms and religious context of a particular culture. In an example from the text, Mormon and Muslim beliefs towards alcohol or substance abuse as strictly prohibited due to the problematic nature associated with these habits, which results in a very low occurrence of alcoholism or substance abuse.

A major contrast between these two views of addiction is that one directly connected to responses contained in the brain as a result of substance abuse and enhance dopamine reinforcement, whereas the other is controlled by social norms and customs. Social and cultural norms have direct influence on substance use and when no controls are set, an individual is to set their own internal standards based on peer influence, media, etc. which can lead to overuse and addiction.

Maddux, J & Winstead, B. (2012). Psychopathology: foundations for a contemporary understanding 3rd ed. Routledge, New York.

Describe and detail specific co-occuring problems found among children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.Co-occuring issues found amongst children and adolescents are inattention and disorganization symptoms vice hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. The existence of comorbid disorders is a signifier of later maladjustment, such as conduct problems among children diagnosed with ADHD show distinct association with criminal behavior and substance abuse in adolescents through adulthood

Maddux, J & Winstead, B. (2012). Psychopathology: foundations for a contemporary understanding 3rd ed. Routledge, New York.

Compare and contrast the Selective Optimization and Compensation (SOC) theory with the Socioemotional Selectivity (STT)theory of aging.Selective Optimization and Compensation model is a prominent theory that attempts explain adaptation to age-related social changes. Aging is associated with a narrowing of opportunities that is referred to as selection. Specifically, this narrowing of opportunities maybe the result of choosing to focus specifically on a particular occupation or alternate objective. The optimization element is the process of improving existing abilities through practice. Lastly, compensation is when alternative methods of acquiring a goal involve seeking assistance through personal or technical avenues. The SOC model is a method used to identify forms of psychopathology that occur later in life. Socioemotional Selectivity (STT) theory of aging is another means of explain how social goalschange across the lifespan. For example, adults older in age normally maintain smaller socialnetworks in contrast to their younger counterparts, however, they develop more sincere emotional satisfaction from these networks. Additionally, mature adults exhibit enhanced regulation of emotion.These theories reflect contrast in social changes in relation to aging in that one theory is in relation to habits and goal orientation; where the other is directed towards emotional regulation in conjunction with goal orientation

Maddux, J & Winstead, B. (2012). Psychopathology: foundations for a contemporary understanding 3rd ed. Routledge, New York.

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