PSYC406 midterm

Question 1 of 40
According to the list of psychiatric disorders provided in the DSM-IV-TR PowerPoint material, a Mood Disorder is diagnosed on:
A.Axis I
B.Axis II
C.Axis IV
D.Axis VI

Answer Key: A
Question 2 of 40
The psychometric term ‘reliability’ refers to:
A.being consistent in your actions
B.consistency of measurement
C.dependability of a test
D.punctuality

Answer Key: B

Question 3 of 40
The statistical concept of psychopathology holds that:
A.infrequently occurring behaviors in a society are normal
B.frequently occurring behaviors in a society are considered normal.
C.constructs of psychopathology are considered valid across cultures
D.frequently occurring behaviors in a society might be considered abnormal

Answer Key: B

Question 4 of 40
The bio-medical model of psychopathology emphasizes the use of:
A.phrenology
B.meridian tapping
C.spinal tapping
D.a classification system

Answer Key: D

Question 5 of 40
Schizophrenia is classified in the DSM-IV on:
A.Axis II
B.Axis III
C.Axis IV
D.Axis I

Answer Key: D

Question 6 of 40
The psychometric term ‘validity’ refers to
A.accurate inferences
B.current
C.unexpired
D.statistical significance

Answer Key: A

Question 7 of 40
The pscyhometric term ‘treatment utility’ refers to:
A.the contribution to known information
B.descriptive validity of a text
C.contribution to improved treatment outcomes
D.high correlations with similar instruments

Answer Key: C

Question 8 of 40
In clinical practice ___________________ interviews are used, while______________ _______interviews are used in research
A.structured; structured
B.unstructured; structured
C.reliable; valid
D.semistructured; semistructured

Answer Key: B

Question 9 of 40
A problem with projective techniques is:
A.you can’t tell the future
B.scoring is difficult
C.normative data is used
D.everything in our inner world originates with our maternal relationships

Answer Key: B

Question 10 of 40
Assessing psychopathology is fraught with potential bias and error.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 11 of 40
According to the text authors, substance abuse claims ________________liv es each year.
A.440,000
B.125,000
C.10,000
D.600,000

Answer Key: D

Question 12 of 40
According to Bowlby, as cited in the journal article for Forum 3, the earliest working models:
A.are formed while a fetus
B.are formed during adolescence
C.are in response to employers
D.are in response to interactions with signficant caregivers

Answer Key: D

Question 13 of 40
Drug abuse in women who report a history of sexual assault is ______ times higher than in women who do not.
A.3
B.4
C.5
D.6

Answer Key: B

Question 14 of 40
According to research findings there is a relationship between childhood attachment and later:
A.antisocial personality disorder
B.schizophrenia
C.bipolar disorder
D.delusional disorder

Answer Key: A

Question 15 of 40
In the journal article assigned to Forum 1, the authors assert that they were able to make conclusions about treatment in the managed care group.
True
False

Answer Key: False

Question 16 of 40
The purpose of the Minami et al. study that is center of Forum 1, was to evaluate the effectiveness of TAU’s delivered in a managed healthcare organization by means of a benchmarking strategy.

Answer Key: benchmarking

Question 17 of 40
According to Mittal and Walker (2007), neurocircuitry implicated in psychotic symptoms may be shared by:
A.circuits controlling heart rate
B.circuits controlling hearing
C.circuits controlling speech
D.circuits controlling dyskinetic movement

Answer Key: D

Question 18 of 40
Consistent with the Mitall and Walker (2007 findings, the group that converted to Axis I psychosis exhibited significantly more movement in:
A.knee jerking motions
B.feet and lower legs
C.ears and head hair
D.face and upper body

Answer Key: D

Question 19 of 40
According to the authors of the journal article for Forum 3, recipients of social support are often:
A.sometimes worse off
B.much happier
C.very pleased
D.none of the above

Answer Key: A

Question 20 of 40
According to the journal article for Forum 3, recipients of social support may experience:
A.lowered self-esteem
B.feelings of indebtedness
C.receiving the wrong kind of support
D.all of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 21 of 40
The authors of the journal article for Forum 3 hypothesize:
A.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from providing instrumental support during adolescence
B.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from instrumental support in adulthood
C.having secure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from emotional support in adulthood
D.having insecure attachment history with parents causes one to benefit from emotional support in adulthood

Answer Key: C

Question 22 of 40
Along with personal denial, ___________________ _ is also a barrier to woment entering treatment for substance abuse.
A.abstract behavior
B.spousal support
C.familial denial
D.None of the above

Answer Key: C

Question 23 of 40
Genetic factors contributing to substance abuse and addiction are easily separated from environmental influences.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 24 of 40
There are 3 agonists approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. in the treatment of opiate dependence.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 25 of 40
Controlled drinking consists of:
A.BSCT
B.a good startle response
C.a particular response
D.having shots

Answer Key: A

Question 26 of 40
Mood disorders occur twice as often in men than in women.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 27 of 40
Autistic children may have ______________ of anterior areas of the brain and __________________ of posterior areas.
A.overgrowth; undergrowth
B.undergrowth; overgrowth
C.undergrowth; undergrowth
D.overgrowth; overgrowth

Answer Key: A

Question 28 of 40
An individual who hears voices, reflects feelings of persecution, and with flattened affect may be diagnosed as:
A.diabolical schizoid
B.paranoid schizophrenic
C.schizotypal
D.delusional disordered

Answer Key: B

Question 29 of 40
The quality of maternal care may affect the development of the ___________________ ____ system.
A.anxiety response
B.thyroid
C.pituitary-adrenal
D.limbic

Answer Key: C

Question 30 of 40
The connection between cognitive science and cognitive therapy is well established.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 31 of 40
A biological signal involving both chemical reactions and electrical shifts is called:
A.axon
B.neuropathway development
C.psychopathology
D.action potential

Answer Key: D

Question 32 of 40
Cognitive-behavioralists assert maladaptive behavior is the result of the way we ________________ and ___________________ _.
A.process data; respond to the environment
Correct B.process information; perceive ourselves
C.perceive others; process stimulii
D.perceive ourselves; perceive others

Answer Key: B

Question 33 of 40
A neurostransmitter involved in reinforcement and chemical addiction is dopamine.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 34 of 40
Central to the study of psychopathology is a definition of ___________________ __.
A.a counselor
B.psychology
C.society
D.culture

Answer Key: D

Question 35 of 40
The goal of cognitive therapy is to:
A.identify negative cognitions
B.test negative cognitions
C.develop new schemas
D.all of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 36 of 40
Beck’s cognitive therapy is now well-established, effective treatment for depression.

A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 37 of 40
Provide a synopsis of the controversy over the inclusion and exclusion of particular paraphilias in the DSM. Include your opinion. Be sure to elaborate with scholarly presentation, style and argument.

Sexual dysfunction and paraphilia are contemporary views that identify two primary categories of sexual disorder. Paraphilia, also known as sexual deviation, is categorized as any of a group of psychosexual disorders that are characterized by sexual fantasies, feelings, or activities involving a nonhuman object. Paraphilia can also be considered when involving a non-consenting partner such as a child, or also the act of pain or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner. A history of sexual abuse may be a contributing factor in the development of paraphilia. The inclusion of particular paraphilia within the DSM innovations was cultural and ethnic group variation, which included age and laboratory and physical examination findings. In contrast, what was excluded was information concerning patient’s etiology, pathology, and treatment because the material was considered to be too theoretically specific. Nevertheless, the material was being utilized as the residing material on age, prevalence, and familial history (Maddux, 2012). In my opinion, when we exclude information it always points to fitting an agenda whether it is a small personal, or globally, excluding information can only hurt, without all known facts no true results can be accepted.

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 38 of 40
What are the advantages and limitations of viewing addictive behavior as diseases? As learned behaviors? As immoral and sinful? (450-600 words). Elaborate.

Starting with advantages of viewing addictive behavior as diseases, I would have to say that an addictive behavior is at least the beginning of losing independency. Viewing an addictive behavior as a disease provides an insight that something is wrong and that person is losing identity because of it. Individuality is identity, and being just like everyone else is taking away from your own personality. Liking similar things and being the same person are to very different things. Taking note that an addictive personality creates barriers between relationships and allows for a separation between what may have been at one time a good relationship. Any new or previous existing relationship has to now take a back seat to that addictive person’s new habit. Another advantage in viewing an addictive behavior as a disease is that it gives people a means to cure that disease, as they say admitting you have a problem is the first step. People have the tendency to live their lives without acknowledging that there are so many things that are wrong or that we are doing wrong to each other because we have such a mixture or standards.

 

When you become addicted to something you become a slave to it. Looking at it from an immoral standpoint, an addictive behavior, depending on someone’s environmental background or financial situation, a person could end up in worse case doing various immoral things to satisfy that addiction. Addiction is a condition in which the body must have a substance to avoid physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms. The first stage of addiction is dependence, during which the search for that specific substance dominates an individual’s life. An addict eventually develops tolerance, which then forces that person to consume larger and larger amounts of the substance to sustain the same effect. From a sinful perspective, anything you put before God is sinful, God is number one, and doing things that He says is sinful is going against Him, and if you’re not with Him, you by definition are against Him. The only thing you should be addicted to is God and being a slave to Him is acceptable because whether we want to admit it or not we are all a slave to something. If we need it to survive, we are slaves to it, money, food, and hopefully God’s law.

 

With limitations of viewing addictive behavior as diseases, I would have to say that certain learned behavior plays significance. Sometimes people become addicted to certain things that help them cope with life. Some people are addicted to exercising, because it helps them relieve stress, but too much of anything can be harmful. Some addictions are harmless within the individuals set of standards, one person could easily cut off the amount they need while another could become less and less satisfied with what they receive from it (Maddux, 2012).

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 39 of 40
What would be the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing specific illicit substances? Provide a response that goes beyond personal opinion.(450-600 words) Elaborate.

Some of the advantages of legalizing specific illicit substances would be that certain substances are perceived as harmless in various people’s perspective and in truth they can truly handle themselves around specific illicit substances. There are people out in the world that truly can take drugs or use illicit substances and be responsible and have no repercussion from using them. People argue that the government shouldn’t have any say in what we do with ourselves and how we live our lives, which I agree with but, I also believe they are required to protect us, even from ourselves. Not in every case of course, not to the point where they abuse their power and authoritative principles. The advantages of legalization could be taxing it regularly, and minimizing illicit substance trafficking, but at the expense of potentially harming people more than we could possibly imagine.

 

Every day people are receiving mixed messages about how they should feel about politics, fashion, morals, sexuality, marriage, children, etc. By legalizing something like marijuana, you are opening the door for more terrible things to come. Marijuana can be easily laced with other substances foreign to the human body much worse and much more addicting. Introducing these substances to people that have never had them before and at unknown doses can be catastrophic. Opening the door for more and more children to gain access to illicit substances than already have been introduced to them is creating an early dependency and only God knows what is in them. People can say that by legalizing all specific illicit substances, they can eliminate a large market that gangs covet, and eliminate the drug trafficking of that substance specifically. However, that frankly is just not true; by opening more business of that caliber just allows more trafficking to come through, all they need to do is slip in more addictive measures into the product to hook the consumers.

 

The disadvantages of legalizing specific illicit substances are simple, because people would abuse them just as they do alcohol and other things. Right now people use all sorts of illicit substances under the radar, but if they had easier access to them it would be so much easier to be an addict and also more accepted by societal values. Drugs abuse and deaths related would probably be an epidemic and eventually would create more problems in society than we have already. Drug addiction’s first stage is obviously dependence, during which the search for that specific illicit substance dominates that person’s life. A drug addict will eventually develop a tolerance to the illicit substance, in which that person will need to consume larger and larger amounts of the illicit substance to sustain the same effect. Legalization of these could be the worst thing ever done by society, or it could be fine, only time can tell (Maddux, 2012).

 

Reference

 

Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (2012).  Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (3rd ed.)  Routledge.
Question 40 of 40
Eating disorders may derive from a fear of fatness.
A. True
B. False

Answer Key: True

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