PBHE520 Quiz 1

Question 1 of 35 3.0 Points

Please read the attached (last page) for questions 1-5.

When the question says answer in “detail,” you will need to answer the questions with explanations.

Is this study a descriptive or inferential? Explain your answer.

  Quiz 1.pdf     103 KB

I believe the study is inferential. An inferential statistical model is one that attempts to test a hypothesis and drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample.

Comment: Descriptive, because only summary statistics (quantifying of data) were reported and no formal statistical inference was made to arrive at a decision.
Question 2 of 35 3.0 Points

What research question was the author trying to answer?

The question being studied is deaths related to lack of health insurance coverage.

Comment: ok
Question 3 of 35 3.0 Points

Were the data obtained from a survey or an experiment? Explain your answer.

The data was neither from survey or experiment. I believe the data came from statistics kept from hopsitals and clinics.

Comment: Survey, because study only collected information. Moreover, there were no comparison groups or no assignment of individuals to any intervention.
Question 4 of 35 3.0 Points

Are possible sources of bias mentioned? If so, what are they? Please explain in detail.

Yes, I think bias existed. The study excluded all those over age 65. They study also did not track those that were underinsured-there was no legnth of the underinsured status being studied. The population may have been over or under represented.

Comment: ok
Question 5 of 35 3.0 Points

Are the conclusions mentioned in this article warranted? Explain your answer.

No, I don’t think so. I think that the conclusions were not guarenteed. There were many groups left out of the study.

Question 6 of 35 3.0 Points

For question numbers 6-9, please pick one of the major studies in Chapter 2 and answer the questions. When the question says answer in “detail,” you will need to answer the questions with explanations. Please read chapter 2 and provide a brief but detailed answer to the following questions.

6. Why was such a large trial necessary?  Please explain in detail.

The large number during the trials can be a representation of the popluation being studied. There would need to be enough of a sample of the population being studied to be effective for this particular study.

Comment: ok
Question 7 of 35 3.0 Points

For question numbers 6-9, please pick one of the major studies in Chapter 2 and answer the questions.

7. Why was a control group needed?

The control group,m although wasn’t stated, would be the insured. The study would need to compare the uninsured to an insured group to make the comparison for the study.

Comment: ok
Question 8 of 35 3.0 Points

For question numbers 6-9, please pick one of the major studies in Chapter 2 and answer the questions.

8. Why was it important to include a double blind feature?

They would need this feature so that the research outcomes would be true outcomes and lack bias or personal imput.

Comment: ok
Question 9 of 35 3.0 Points

For question numbers 6-9, please pick one of the major studies in Chapter 2 and answer the questions.

9. If volunteers had been used in this trial rather than a random sample of individuals, of what value would the results have been?

The volunteers would have been an unrepresented population rather than a more random population that was a bit more represented. There were groups that were unrepresented in this study, although with volunteers, it would have been less represented.

Comment: ok
Question 10 of 35 1.0 Points

Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between a sample and a population?

 A.A) A population and a sample are not related.
 B.B) A sample is a group of subjects selected from a population to be studied.
 C.C) A sample is a group of populations that are subject to observation.
 D.D) A population is a group of samples that may or may not be included in a study.
Answer Key: B
Question 11 of 35 1.0 Points

What is the most important factor in selecting an appropriate sample?

 A.A) The size of the sample
 B.B) The sample must be representative of the population
 C.C) The method used to collect the sample
 D.D) The time it take to get a good sample
Answer Key: B
Question 12 of 35 1.0 Points

Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between a sample and a population? (SAME AS 10)

 A.A) A population and a sample are not related.
 B.B) A sample is a group of subjects selected from a population to be studied.
 C.C) A sample is a group of populations that are subject to observation.
 D.D) A population is a group of samples that may or may not be included in a study.
Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 35 1.0 Points

There were 30 patients in the 3rd ward of Goodfellow General Hospital. These patients were undergoing various studies for sleeping deprivation. A sleep study specialist recorded the average hours of REM sleep for the patients on the ward during a 2 day study. The sleep study specialist found that the average hours of REM sleep a patient got per day during the two day study was 6.2 hours with a standard deviation of 1.6 hours. Please respond True or False 13. The subjects studied represent a population.

 A. True
 B. False
Answer Key: True
Question 14 of 35 1.0 Points

There were 30 patients in the 3rd ward of Goodfellow General Hospital. These patients were undergoing various studies for sleeping deprivation. A sleep study specialist recorded the average hours of REM sleep for the patients on the ward during a 2 day study. The sleep study specialist found that the average hours of REM sleep a patient got per day during the two day study was 6.2 hours with a standard deviation of 1.6 hours. Please respond True or False 14. The average number of hours of REM sleep is a parameter of the study.

 A. True
 B. False
Answer Key: True
Question 15 of 35 1.0 Points

There were 30 patients in the 3rd ward of Goodfellow General Hospital. These patients were undergoing various studies for sleeping deprivation. A sleep study specialist recorded the average hours of REM sleep for the patients on the ward during a 2 day study. The sleep study specialist found that the average hours of REM sleep a patient got per day during the two day study was 6.2 hours with a standard deviation of 1.6 hours. Please respond True or False 15. The standard deviation is a statistic associated with the study.

 A. True
 B. False
Answer Key: False
Question 16 of 35 1.0 Points

There were 30 patients in the 3rd ward of Goodfellow General Hospital. These patients were undergoing various studies for sleeping deprivation. A sleep study specialist recorded the average hours of REM sleep for the patients on the ward during a 2 day study. The sleep study specialist found that the average hours of REM sleep a patient got per day during the two day study was 6.2 hours with a standard deviation of 1.6 hours. Please respond True or False 16. The sampling method in this case was convenience sampling.

 True
 False
Answer Key: True
Question 17 of 35 3.0 Points

In what ways are a random sample, convenience sample, and a systematic sample different? In what ways are they similar?

Random sample- this is probibility sampling. The population has an equal and known chance of being selected. The pool of subjects becomes biased.

Systematic sample-often used instead of random sampling. People are selected from a list of population members. The list does not contain a hidden order.

Convinience sample-Sample selected based on the convinience of the sample. Used durin preliminary reasearch.

Two of them have bias in sampling subjects. The other does not.

All three are probibility samples. People have a known non-zero probibility fo being selected.

Comment: ok
Question 18 of 35 3.0 Points

Discuss stratified sampling and cluster sampling and describe a situation where it would be effective to use each method of sampling in a clinical trial.

Cluster sampling is that of a specific population such as a town or city. Stratified samples are often demographical. I believe this would be effective to use in a case where the hospital/clinic was tracking a particular disease. This would be the area where it happens most and in what age groups, or sexes.

Comment: ok
Question 19 of 35 1.0 Points

A variable measuring the number of people in a group

 A.a. Cannot be analyzed as either continuous or discrete
 B.b. Could be analyzed as either continuous or discrete depending on the whether there are a large or small number of people in the group
 C.c. Can only be analyzed as a continuous variable
 D.d. Can only be analyzed as a discrete variable
Answer Key: B
Question 20 of 35 1.0 Points

If you classified the fruit in a basket as apple, orange, or banana, this would be an example of which level of measurement?

 A.a. ratio scale
 B.b. nominal scale
 C.c. ordinal scale
 D.d. interval scale
Answer Key: B
Question 21 of 35 1.0 Points

Respondents in a child care survey are asked to state the number and ages of children in their household. The number of children is measured on the ____ scale of measurement.

 A.a. ordinal scale
 B.b. ratio scale
 C.c. nominal scale
 D.d. interval scale
Answer Key: B
Question 22 of 35 1.0 Points

The scale of measurement that is used to assign study volunteers a number in order to study individual reaction to a certain drug is the:

 A.a. ordinal scale
 B.b. ratio scale
 C.c. nominal scale
 D.d. interval scale
Answer Key: C
Question 23 of 35 1.0 Points

Data obtained from a ordinal scale

 A.a. must be numeric
 B.b. must be qualitative
 C.c. must be alphabetic
 D.d. must be countable
Answer Key: B
Question 24 of 35 1.0 Points

Social security numbers consist of numeric values. Therefore, social security is an example of

 A.a. a quantitative variable
 B.b. either a quantitative or a qualitative variable
 C.c. a grouping variable
 D.d. a qualitative variable
Answer Key: D
Question 25 of 35 1.0 Points

Fifteen percent of respondents in a survey studying smoking habits of minors in an inner city school district found were found to smoke more than a pack of cigarettes a day. Twenty percent of the minors smoked 15 – 20 cigarettes per day, while 35 % of minors smoked between 5 and 14 cigarettes per day. Thirty percent of the minors surveyed smoked less than 5 cigarettes a day. The graphical device(s) which can be used to present these data is (are)

 A.a. a line graph
 B.b. only a bar graph
 C.c. only a pie chart
 D.d. both a bar graph and a pie chart
Answer Key: D
Question 26 of 35 1.0 Points

A tabular summary of a set of data showing the fraction of the total number of items in several classes is a

 A.a. frequency distribution
 B.b. relative frequency distribution
 C.c. frequency
 D.d. cumulative frequency distribution
Answer Key: B
Question 27 of 35 1.0 Points

Which measures of central tendency are not affected by extremely low or extremely high values?

 A.a. Mean and median
 B.b. Mode and median
 C.c. Mean and mode
 D.d. Geometric mean and mean
Answer Key: B
Question 28 of 35 1.0 Points

What is the relationship among the mean, median and mode in a symmetric distribution?

 A.a. Mean is always the largest value
 B.b. Mean is always the smallest value
 C.c. All equal
 D.d. Mode is the largest value
 E.e. None of the above
Answer Key: C
Question 29 of 35 1.0 Points

What is a disadvantage of the range as a measure of dispersion?

 A.a. Based on only two observations
 B.b. Can be distorted by a large mean
 C.c. Not in the same units as the original data
 D.d. Has no disadvantage
 E.e. None of the above
Answer Key: A
Question 30 of 35 1.0 Points

What is the relationship between the variance and the standard deviation?

 A.a. Variance is the square of the standard deviation
 B.b. Variance is the square root of the standard deviation
 C.c. Variance is twice the standard deviation
 D.d. No constant relationship between the variance and the standard deviation
 E.e. None of the above
Answer Key: A
Question 31 of 35 1.0 Points

Mercy Hospital is in a neighborhood where the mean family income is $45,000 with a standard deviation of $9,000. Midtown General Hospital (MGH) is in a neighborhood where the mean family income is $100,000 and the standard deviation is $30,000. What are the relative variations of the family incomes in the two neighborhoods where the hospitals are?

 A.a. Mercy 20%, MGH 30%
 B.b. Mercy 40%, MGH 20%
 C.c. Mercy 30%, MGH 20%
 D.d. Mercy 50%, MGH 33%
Answer Key: A
Question 32 of 35 1.0 Points

A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as a

 A.a. sample statistic
 B.b. sample parameter
 C.c. population mean
 D.d. population parameter
Answer Key: A
Question 33 of 35 1.0 Points

Since the population size is always larger than the sample size, then the sample statistic

 A.a. can be smaller, larger, or equal to the population parameter
 B.b. can never be equal to the population parameter
 C.c. can never be larger than the population parameter
 D.d. can never be smaller than the population parameter
Answer Key: A
Question 34 of 35 1.0 Points

Which of the following symbols represents the size of the population?

 A.a. N
 B.b. s
 C.c. mu
 D.d. sigma
Answer Key: A
Question 35 of 35 1.0 Points

A hospital employee survey capturing the number of hours an employee spent daily working out side their prescribed duties showed a positively skewed distribution. What is the best method to understand the central tendency of this data?

 A.a. mean
 B.b. median
 C.c. mode
 D.d. range
Answer Key: B

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