SOCI111

All of these are right.  Please look at the answer

Quiz 1


According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.

A.capitalism
B.democracy
C.socialism
D.bureaucracy
Karl Marx suggested that the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is ________.

A.class conflict
B.religion
C.family
D.education
The concept used to describe opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.

A.the sociological perspective
B.social location
C.social integration
D.the social imperative
Of the following influences, the one that C. Wright Mills most attributed to being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior is ________.

A.common sense
B.instinct
C.external influences
D.inherited abilities
When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income, they are trying to determine their ________.

A.social network
B.social location
C.social personality
D.social skills
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.

A.Emile Durkheim
B.Max Weber
C.Karl Marx
D.Auguste Comte
Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change while Max Weber believed that ________ was the force most responsible for social change.

A.economics; religion
B.education; political stability
C.government, economics
D.religion; education
During his career Anthony has worked as a juvenile police officer, corrections counselor in a state prison, and as the executive director of an urban redevelopment program. In view of this, which description best describes Anthony’s career path?

A.Anthony has been a pure sociologist
B.Anthony has assumed the role of being a basic sociologist
C.Anthony has been an applied sociologist
D.Anthony can best be described as a social reformer.
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a ________ theorist and John would be seen as a ________ theorist.

A.symbolic interactionist; functionalist
B.conflict; functionalist
C.functionalist; symbolic interactionist
D.functionalist; conflict
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects and technology passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.

A.culture
B.tradition
C.science
D.experience
The author’s experience in Morocco that included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him by the Moroccans, pushing and shoving at the train station, and the total disregard for sanitation by food vendors left the author with a profound sense of ________.

A.ethnocentrism
B.culture shock
C.cultural relativity
D.stereotyping
Comparing the refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is to ethnocentrism as making a sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is to ________.

A.culture shock
B.value contradictions
C.cultural relativism
D.public sociology
Sociologists use the concept “norms” to describe ________.

A.the standards by which people define what is socially desirable
B.expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior
C.ideas about what is true or false
D.the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of values
The notion that language determines our consciousness is the basic premise of which concept?

A.the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
B.the Thomas Theorem
C.the Korsikoff Syndrome
D.Differential Association Theory
If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse she would be violating a ________; but if she came to class not wearing a blouse (or any other garment) she would be violating a ________.

A.norm, folkway
B.folkway, more
C.more, law
D.folkway, value
From a sociological perspective, which statement best classifies 19th century Mormons and 21st century physicians?

A.Both would be classified as subcultures
B.Both would be classified as countercultures
C.The Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians a subculture
D.The Mormons would be classified a subculture and the physicians a counterculture
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.

A.material culture; symbolic culture
B.ideal culture; real culture
C.real culture; symbolic culture
D.unrealistic culture; realistic culture
Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic “human” traits we take for granted?

A.biological factors
B.basic intelligene
C.intimate early social interaction
D.strict discipline
Professor Zalewski bases her self concept as a professor on the interaction she has with students and the reactions she receives from them during class. In view of this, which process is Professor Zalewski utilizing?

A.Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
B.Cooley’s Looking Glass Self
C.Mead’s “I” and “Me”
D.Piaget’s Theory of Moral Reasoning
George Herbert Mead theorized that learning to take the role of the other entails three stages which are the ________, ________, and ________ stages.

A.primary, secondary, tertiary
B.id, ego, superego
C.sensorimotor, preoperational, operational
D.imitation, play, games
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.

A.resocialization
B.role diffusion
C.ego identity
D.gender socialization
Traditionally, statuses men occupy (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is called ________.

A.the social imperative
B.social inequality
C.social solidarity
D.social integration
People and groups that influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are called ________.

A.total institutions
B.generalized others
C.agents of socialization
D.out groups
Although formal education is intended to transmit knowledge and skills, it unintentionally teaches students that the same rules apply to everyone. This universality reflects what sociologists describe as ________.

A.a signaling system
B.a pattern variable
C.a latent function
D.a manifest function
What term applies to the stages people pass through from birth to death, beginning with “childhood” and concluding with “the older years”?

A.rites of passage
B.life theme
C.the life course
D.stages of development

 

Quiz 2


What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?

A.symbolic interactionism and functionalism
B.functionalism and the conflict perspective
C.the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism
D.symbolic interactionism and feminism
Which of the following perspectives is most appropriate for a research sociologist to use?

A.microsociology
B.macrosociology
C.neither macro nor microsociology
D.both macro and microsociology depending on the situation
What are the primary variables in determining one’s social class?

A.race, sex, residence
B.income, education, occupational prestige
C.sex (male or female)
D.one’s particular ethnic descent
Andrea is an aspiring associate editor for a major publisher. She is single but feels married to her work. Last year she received a $50,000 bonus for the excellent work she did in promoting new textbooks published by her employer. Based on this information, Andrea’s ascribed status is ________ and her achieved status is ________.

A.female, married
B.bonus recipient, associate editor
C.married, bonus recipient
D.female, associate editor
The difference between status and role is that:

A.status identification is strictly enforced but roles are not
B.we occupy a status which is a social position but play a role which is a social expectation
C.status is voluntary and role is obligatory.
D.status determines social position while role is not significant
Which of the following groups is least qualified as a social institution?

A.neighborhood street gangs
B.religion
C.family
D.the military
The notion that the mass media represents the varied interests of many groups would reflect a position consistent with ________ theory.

A.exchange
B.conflict
C.functionalist
D.symbolic interactionist
Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinschaft as ________ solidarity is to Gesellschaft.

A.organic
B.tribal
C.folk
D.natural
As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristic such as age or sex. This is referred to as ________.

A.social solidarity
B.the social imperative
C.the division of labor
D.class structure
In the statement “poverty causes crime,” the words “poverty” and “crime” are best described as ________ because they are subject to change.

A.unobtrusive measures
B.variables
C.parametric measures
D.correlations
What is a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory?

A.correlation
B.hypothesis
C.secondary prediction
D.primary function
John developed a questionnaire to measure job satisfaction among industrial workers. He has administered his questionnaire to ten different workers’ groups at the same plant and on the same shift but notes the results are inconsistent. John’s concern reflects the issue of ________.

A.the reliability of his measure
B.the representativeness of the sample
C.the external validity of his findings
D.the validity of his operational definitions
Tiffany has a keen interest in the original theories of William Sheldon on the relationship between body type and juvenile delinquency. She has duplicated the study using Sheldon’s original methodology to see if her results are compatible to Sheldon’s. Such a study illustrates the concept of ________.

A.validity
B.reliability
C.replication
D.correlation
What is the defining characteristic of a representative sample?

A.It contains equal numbers of men and women
B.It contains an equal proportion of racial and ethnic groups
C.Each person in the population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen
D.Every person in the sample represents a specific racial, gender, or religious group
Juanita is conducting survey research for the Colgate-Palmolive Company . The company recently sent several cases of personal sized toothpaste to Dr. Yankum as a part of a promotion. Juanita is surveying patients as they leave Dr. Yankum’s office to ask if the dentist gave them any hygiene items to continue quality dental care. Juanita has discovered that practically every patient received Colgate and has concluded in her report to the company that dentists prefer Colgate toothpaste over all other brands. What flaw exists in Juanita’s research?

A.She has chosen an inappropriate research design
B.She is using a biased sample to collect her data
C.All marketing research is unscientific and therefore invalid
D.The research suffers from interviewer bias
Max has developed the hypothesis that the stress felt by unemployed men increases the probability of spousal abuse. Stress would be considered the ________ variable and spousal abuse would be considered the ________ variable.

A.dependent, independent
B.dependent, control
C.independent, dependent
D.independent, control
With the domestication of plants and animals, a number of significant social changes occurred. Which of the following was not one of these?

A.a more specialized division of labor
B.groups increased in size and number
C.groups became more specialized
D.societies became more egalitarian
What is the key feature of post-industrial societies as it relates to the work force?

A.The production of durable goods such as automobiles, refrigerators and washing machines became the emphasis.
B.High efficiency production of food and fiber products became most prevalent.
C.The transmission and use of information services dominated the work force.
D.Leisure time activities are the primary product of the society
How does the structure and function of groups change as they grow in size?

A.Members tend to form more informal relationships
B.Group members become more active in the decision-making process
C.Group members feel more strongly bonded to each other
D.Groups tend to develop a more formal social structure
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six “stooges” and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?

A.Stanley Milgram
B.Robert Merton
C.Phillip Zimbardo
D.Solomon Asch
For many college professors, their teachers served as role models. Kody Scott looked up to older gang members as his idols. In both cases, professors and gang members respectively most qualify as being:

A.generalized others
B.secondary groups
C.social others
D.reference groups
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.

A.secondary group
B.clique
C.primary group
D.community
Sociologically, what term best applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise ?

A.a social frame
B.an aggregate
C.a category
D.a social group
Matthew is completing his master’s thesis which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months he has been riding with such a gang, observing and describing their behavior in an attempt to present a view of these gangs from the gang members’ perspective. Matthew is employing which research method?

A.quantitative methods
B.experimental methods
C.qualitative methods
D.secondary analysis
There is a high correlation between the number of Americans who pay income tax in the month of April and the number of swim suits sold. Which of the following statements is the best description of this relationship?

A.it is a spurious relationship
B.it is a cause and effect relationship
C.it is an indirect relationship
D.it is classified as a null hypothesis

 

Quiz 3


Who is the sociologist given credit for coining the concept of the McDonaldization of Society?

A.Jeffrey Reiman
B.Douglas Massey
C.Howard Winet
D.George Ritzer
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a[n] ________.

A.non-profit organization
B.voluntary association
C.bureaucracy
D.oligarchy
The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide their operation. Even though their respective activities and membership rosters have significant differences, all three would share the classification of being

A.aggregates
B.social institutions
C.formal organizations
D.ideal types
The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced capitalism was ________.

A.Karl Marx
B.Herbert Spencer
C.Max Weber
D.Emile Durkheim
Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. Frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more likely to be industrialized?

A.The society based on customs and relationships.
B.Both societies will have the same degree of industrialization.
C.The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results.
D.Neither society will be industrialized.
In which two societies would someone find relationships that are based on history, diffuse, and long-term?

A.agricultural and industrial societies
B.horticultural and agricultural societies
C.horticultural and post industrial societies
D.industrial and postindustrial societies
Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station he has taped pictures up of his wife and granddaughter and a few others of last year’s Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to:

A.resist alienation.
B.bond with his supervisor who is also a grandparent
C.promote his “all-American” status to his colleagues
D.simply decorate his office.
As voluntary organizations, what do the College Young Democrats, Kiwanis Club, Uptown Stamp Collectors’ Club, and National Rifle Association all have in common?

A.They are all primary groups.
B.They offer people an identity.
C.They bring people into the political mainstream
D.They generate social change.
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.

A.the Thomas Theorem
B.The Protestant Ethic
C.the Iron Law of Oligarchy
D.the Spirit of Capitalism
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, why do “hidden values” exist in an organization?
A.To assist women and minorities in gaining promotions
B.To help the organization be successful
C.As a means to promote teamwork
D.As self-fulfilling stereotypes to direct the organization
It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the ________ perspective.

A.functionalist
B.conflict
C.symbolic interactionist
D.structuralist

It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a fringe benefit for their employees. What has evaluative research found regarding the costs and benefits of these facilities?

A.Daycare facilities are ineffective because they are used by only a few employees.
B.Because of the large number of employees using them, daycare facilities are too expensive to operate.
C.Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale.
D.The results of the research are inconclusive.
Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

A.ethics
B.values
C.folkways
D.crime
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

A.It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
B.The nature of one’s behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance.
C.Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction for society
D.Deviance is analogous to mental illness
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

A.structural functionalism
B.symbolic interactionism
C.the conflict perspective
D.the neo-conflict perspective
Napoleon Chagnon’s visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
A.nonconforming behavior
B.the need for social sanctions
C.the cultural relativity of deviance
D.the need for absolute standards in defining deviance
What is a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

A.social solidarity
B.the social imperative
C.social control
D.social bond
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.

A.sanctions
B.profiling
C.stereotyping
D.degradation ceremonies
The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.

A.Travis Hirschi
B.Jackson Toby
C.Walter Reckless
D.F. Ivan Nye
Which of the following theories least follows the principles of symbolic interactionism?

A.differential association theory
B.control theory
C.labeling theory
D.strain theory
Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?

A.containment theory
B.social bond theory
C.the theory of differential association
D.illegitimate opportunity structure
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

A.anomie
B.latent dysfunction
C.mass hysteria
D.retreatism
Which of the following acts does not qualify as a white collar crime?

A.robbing the First National Bank
B.a police officer taking $100 not to write a speeding ticket
C.an executive writing off the corporation’s million dollar fine as investment capital
D.classifying parking tickets as job hunting expenses on an income tax return
What are the two most significant “anchoring devices” that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?

A.a good lawyer and big expense account
B.neighborhood and income
C.race and ethnicity
D.marriage and education
How a society treats those who are deviant is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?

A.The United States is the most humane society in the world
B.Prisons are a last resort in dealing with deviants
C.U.S. prisons emphasize prisoner rehabilitation and mental hospitals cure the mentally ill.
D.They are both used as warehouses for the unwanted

 

Quiz 4


In every society from the hunting and gathering society to the post industrial society, what has been the most common basis for social stratification?

A.race
B.income
C.level of education
D.gender
In which of the following societies would slavery be most likely to exist?

A.pastoral society
B.agricultural society
C.industrial society
D.post industrial society
A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement such as slavery is called

A.a constitution
B.class consciousness
C.a theory
D.an ideology
What is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste and estate?

A.The class system is not based on religion.
B.The class system has fluid boundaries.
C.The class system only works in democracies.
D.The class system existed before the other three
Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has experienced ________.

A.false class consciousness
B.misplaced commitment
C.a management ideology
D.the Hawthorne Effect
Of the following methods, which would be the best way to preserve a stratification system?

A.Demonstrating violation of law through public punishment.
B.Establishing a well trained and highly armed police force
C.Controlling ideas, information, technology and social networks through ideology
D.Brute force and coercion to keep dissidents in their place.
In both England and the United States, what percentage of the population is occupied by the elite upper class?

A.one percent
B.three percent
C.five percent
D.ten percent
The theory that explains how global stratification developed that includes core nations, periphery nations, semi-periphery nations, and external areas is ________ theory.

A.dependency
B.culture of poverty
C.colonialization
D.world system
The control of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Industrialized Nations through debts owed to them is referred to as ________.

A.imperialism
B.neocolonialism
C.modernization
D.capitalism
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?

A.ethnicity, race, sex
B.wealth, power, prestige
C.sex, power, education
D.occupation, neighborhood, wealth
When used by sociologists, the term “wealth,” refers to ________.

A.only the property that a person owns
B.only the income made from a person’s occupation
C.both property owned and income made by the person less debts  
D.income after state and federal taxes have been withheld
Which of the following statements is most accurate in respect to determining social prestige in modern society?

A.Social prestige is based primarily on the wealth one accumulates.
B.One’s occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige
C.Together wealth and power are the determining factors of social prestige
D.Family lineage is the primary determinant of social prestige
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil’s high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.

A.status insecurity
B.status contradiction
C.status inconsistency
D.status incompatibility
Eric Wright revised Marx’s concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. He termed their positions in the class structure ________.

A.status inconsistency
B.contradictory class locations
C.status incompatibility
D.class ambiguity
What is Durkheim’s term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?

A.compurgation
B.primogeniture
C.negative affective state
D.anomie
What did the research by Kohn suggest as being an influence upon parents that impacted how they reared their children?

A.the net worth of the family
B.the race or ethnicity of the family
C.where the family lived
D.the parents’ occupations
What is the relationship between one’s social class and their chances of being a victim of crime?

A.positive
B.direct
C.inverse
D.null
What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

A.geographic location
B.race/ethnicity
C.sex
D.education
Jeanann and her two children are on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty for ________.

A.at least five or six years
B.until both children are 18 years of age
C.a year or less
D.between eight and ten years
Which statement is least accurate regarding sex and gender?

A.There is unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on one’s sex.
B.Being born male or female carries images and expectations on how one should act
C.Gender is sociologically significant because it is how society controls its members
D.The terms sex and gender are sociologically and biologically interchangeable
What is Cynthia Fuchs Epstein’s basic argument to explain what determines the type of work performed by men and women in each society?

A.It is based on biology and climate
B.It is a product of socialization and social control
C.Motivation and aspirations are the determining factors.
D.Status and wealth determine who does specific work
Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

A.Women are out numbered by men in virtually every society
B.Women are not as physically strong as men
C.Men perform the most difficult and dangerous work in most societies.
D.Women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics.
Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________.

A.the “glass ceiling
B.the “glass elevator”
C.the “mommy track”
D.sexual harassment
Which of the following statements best describes how feminists view sexual harassment?

A.It is a fundamental difference in how men and women think.
B.It is based on the social process that guides society.
C.It is based on the structural problems embedded in society.
D.It is caused by the biological differences between men and women
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

A.It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
B.It permits a comparison to superior male qualities.
C.It provides for one group to lead, another to follow.
D.It reinforces the teachings of Genesis

 

Quiz 5


Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?

A.It is entirely dependent upon fixed biological characteristics.
B.Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
C.The concept of race tends to be quite similar in all cultures.
D.Race is a variable that changes, depending upon the age of people who use the term
In society, what is the group called with the greatest power, privileges, and social status?

A.the majority
B.the power elite
C.the capitalist class
D.the dominant group
Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?

A.genocide and the expansion of political boundaries
B.migration and a change in the economy of a nation
C.genocide and a change in ethnic work by citizens
D.the expansion of political boundaries and migration
Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.

A.values; attitudes
B.norms; beliefs
C.attitudes; actions
D.actions; attitudes
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of how a country’s dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?

A.colonization
B.segregation
C.internal colonialism
D.assimilation
What is another name for multiculturalism?

A.compartmentalization
B.sublimation
C.pluralism
D.assimilation
In American history who were the “white ethnics”?

A.Immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.  
B.Colonists who settled in Canada
C.Colonists who left the original 13 colonies and moved westward prior to the establishment of the United States.
D.Colonists who did not support the concept of independence from mother England
Of all ethnic groups, in which one are children most likely to grow up with two parents and the least likely to be born to a single mother?

A.Native American
B.Asian-American
C.Latino-American
D.Caucasian-European
Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, any Asian was viewed as an enemy of America. This phenomenon that occurs when one ethnic group that resembles another is also discriminated against because of mere association is called ________.

A.spillover bigotry
B.the Thomas Theorem
C.the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
D.definition of the situation
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

A.forced assimilation
B.internal colonialism
C.subjugation
D.population transfer
Under czarist Russia, daily living conditions for Jews were made so intolerable that millions chose to leave Russia and migrate to other countries. This is an example of ________.

A.departmentalization
B.subhumanization
C.indirect transfer
D.direct transfer
What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason that some people are attracted to racist hate groups?

A.They have too much leisure time on their hands.
B.They developed group polarization at an early age.
C.Hate groups provide some people with a type of meaning in their lives.
D.Some people are bored and are drawn to risk-taking behavior
According to Adorno, a[n] ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.

A.antisocial personality
B.authoritarian personality
C.scapegoat
D.psychosocial personality
What does it mean when sociologists say age is “socially constructed”?

A.Age is based on sociobiological concepts
B.Age is related to heredity and genes
C.Age is perceived in a similar manner all over the world
D.Attitudes towards the aged are rooted in society
Which statement is least accurate regarding the graying of America?

A.The life expectancy in America was about 50 in 1910.
B.About 13 percent of the U.S. population is 65 or older today.
C.The median age of Americans has almost doubled since 1950
D.Today, the number of elderly is higher than the number of teenagers
What is the name of the theory developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstram to describe the transformation of the elderly to feel more at one with the universe and more understanding in their perception of social issues?

A.continuity theory
B.gerotranscendence
C.aging complacency
D.disengagement theory
What is the prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age called?

A.reverse discrimination
B.generationsim
C.ageism
D.cohortism
How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the social value of the elderly in the United States?

A.The social value of the elderly increased with industrialization.
B.The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization.
C.The social value of the elderly has remained the same throughout American history
D.The social value of the elderly has never been an issue in American history.
What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that culture shapes how we perceive the elderly?

A.symbolic interactionism
B.functionalism
C.the conflict perspective
D.the feminist perspective
What is a flaw critics have found in disengagement theory?

A.It is based only on western culture and customs.
B.It is a myth that society takes care of the elderly when they retire.
C.The theory fails to take into account people from the inner city, rural America, and other poor areas
D.The elderly don’t really disengage; instead many exchange one set of roles for another
Which theory posits the notion that retirement is a mutually beneficial agreement between two parts of society, the old and the young?

A.activity theory
B.exchange theory
C.disengagement theory
D.conflict theory
Which sociological perspective is most aligned with the disengagement, activity, and continuity theories of aging?

A.symbolic interactionism
B.the conflict perspective
C.functionalism
D.the feminist perspective
What was the macro level goal of the Gray Panthers?

A.to lower the retirement age to 55 or less
B.to increase social security payments to all retired Americans
C.to establish a national health care plan for the elderly
D.to challenge institutions that oppress the poor
Based on the statistical abstracts, a person possessing which of the following two qualities is most likely to be poor?

A.a white male
B.an African American female
C.an Asian American female
D.a Latino male
Which of the following events most transformed the process of dying to an event to be managed by professionals?

A.urbanization
B.retirement
C.industrialization
D.creation of nursing homes

  I did miss one here-Please watch the answers
 

Quiz 6


Hunting and gathering societies which generate very little surplus food and material property are described by sociologists as ________ economies.

A.welfare
B.capitalist
C.subsistence
D.socialist
What is the sociological significance of developing surplus and trade?

A.It fosters inequality
B.It establishes a new world order
C.It lowers prices
D.It eliminates primitive tribes
The plow was to the agricultural society as the ________ was to the industrial society

A.microchip
B.computer
C.decoding of double helix molecule
D.steam engine
Today most governments issue money that is not backed by anything more than a promise to honor it “for all debts public and private.” What is such currency called?

A.gold standard currency
B.fiat money
C.warehouse cash
D.deposit receipt
The linking of the world’s nations by fast communications, transportation, and increased trade has created what sociologists refer to as ________.

A.an open market
B.the global village
C.a new world order
D.the corporate universe
What term did Durkheim use to refer to the sense of unity which comes from doing similar activities and directly sharing most aspects of life?

A.organic solidarity
B.gesellschaft
C.mechanical solidarity
D.unchanging solidarity
Sociologists use the term “________” to refer to the fundamental changes in society that occur as a result of vast numbers of women entering the work force.

A.women’s revolution
B.quiet revolution
C.women’s rebellion
D.quiet insubordination
Theorists who believe that corporations use profit as their moral guide, with no concern for how opening and closing factories affects workers, are most aligned with which sociological perspective?

A.the conflict perspective
B.functionalism
C.symbolic interactionism
D.structuralism
What is another term for power relations wherever they exist?

A.politics
B.government
C.economics
D.nationalism
For a government to be stable, what quality must exist?

A.The government must have a large military force to back it.
B.The leader must be charismatic.
C.The government must be based on democratic principles.
D.The source of the power must be perceived as being legitimate.  
Which of the following best describes rational-legal authority?

A.rule by custom and folkways
B.rule by the power of personality
C.rule by tradition
D.rule by written laws
Max Weber used the term ________ to refer to the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either a rational-legal authority or traditional authority.

A.routinization of charisma
B.passing of the gavel
C.transfer of power
D.rationalization of leadership
In the Kolondahar, a small group of high ranking military officers make the decisions that determine national policy. This form of government describes ________.

A.a representative democracy
B.a fascist dictatorship
C.an oligarchy
D.a monarchy
Which of the following power styles is the best example of totalitarianism?

A.the Bush administration since the passage of the Patriot Act
B.Queen Elizabeth II’s rule over England and Wales
C.tribal rule in villages of the Amazon River Basin.
D.Nazi Germany and the Gestapo
Phong Lhu is a small business owner and a recently naturalized citizen of the United States. Since there are very few Vietnamese serving in public office, Phong Lhu will most likely vote in accord with ________.

A.his interests as a member of an ethnic minority
B.his interests as a member of the small business community
C.his religious interests
D.those who share his social class position
According to the functionalist perspective, what keeps the government of the United States from turning against its citizens?

A.a fear of nationwide anarchy
B.political gridlock between the major parties
C.the pluralism in distributing power
D.the power of political action committees
In a Native American tribe, what transpires when a male warrior takes on a berdache?

A.He has passed the final test of being a warrior worthy of the tribe’s respect.
B.He has accepted a spouse who is another man who now takes on all the responsibilities of a woman
C.He has taken a woman captured in warfare and made her the mother of his children.
D.He accepted the code of the tribe that demands he give his life for the tribe if need be
Frank, Jim, Martha and Louise occupy the same apartment, share routine chores such as cooking, cleaning and laundry and each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a ________.

A.family
B.household
C.patriarchy
D.clan
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?

A.It reinforces patriarchal authority.
B.Incest is universally regarded as a deviant act.
C.The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion
D.It prevents the transference of genetic defects
In the United States, what is the choice of a marriage partner most dependent upon?

A.It is totally unpredictable because “love is blind.”
B.It is based on individuals engaging in a rational cost/benefit analysis
C.It is highly influenced by pheromones.
D.It is influenced by age, education, class, race and religion
Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.

A.sexism in American society
B.the gendered division of labor
C.techniques of resistance
D.the hidden curriculum
In his research on family, what did sociologist Melvin Kohn discover about how parents socialize their children?

A.They base it on the perception of how much money they will earn.
B.It is based on the tradition on which they were raised as children.
C.They follow the pattern of how other members of the same community raise their children.
D.It is primarily based upon the norms of their work environment.
What is the main difference between cohabitation and marriage?

A.The age at which people cohabitate usually ends at around 30
B.Cohabitation is never permanent whereas most marriages are.
C.There is a greater degree of financial and emotional commitment in marriage.
D.Marriage is a more fragile and more likely to end in separation.
Which of the following couples is least likely to divorce within the first ten years of their marriage?

A.Alice and Gregory who were teenage sweethearts and married when they were 22.
B.Becky and Frank who work at the shoe factory together on the assembly line.
C.Ruth and Chuck who, after a whirlwind romance, got married and had their first child six months later
D.Cathy and Tony who attend the same fundamentalist church and were married in their late 20s
What have sociologists found in relation to spouse battering?

A.men are more likely to initiate violence
B.women are more likely to initiate violence
C.women are more likely to be injured
D.men are more likely to report family violence

 

Quiz 7


Prior to a formal system of education that included schools, teachers, and diplomas how was the manifest function of education accomplished?

A.Through a process of acculturation.
B.Through heredity and genetics.
C.Children relied on instinct to develop skills needed.
D.Children relied on experimentation and imitation
What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation’s needs?

A.It is a reflection of the nation’s culture and economy
B.It creates a system of labeling individuals to facilitate occupation and role
C.It is a formal system necessary for international recognition.
D.It is the basis of developing a sense of national pride.
Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of a[n] ________.

A.cultural contradiction
B.value conflict
C.status inconsistency
D.role ambiguity
When employers use diplomas and degrees more and more to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ________ society.

A.fiduciary
B.bifurcated
C.credential
D.bureaucratic
What is the process by which schools pass a society’s core values from one generation to the next?

A.cultural transmission of values
B.social integration of education
C.multiculturalism of society
D.social pluralism of culture
You are taking an IQ test which will be used to determine your intelligence level. The first question asks you to identify all of the equipment you will need to play the game of shoeball. The second question asks the rules of the game. Finally, the third question asks you to explain how shoeball is scored and the number of points you need to win the game. Based on this question, what does the test demonstrate?

A.It accurately measures intelligence.
B.The test is valid and reliable.
C.The test is totally unreliable
D.It has a cultural bias in measuring intelligence.
What do studies demonstrate in regard to the level of social skills home schooled students develop?

A.Home schooled students are functionally illiterate when it comes to social skills.
B.Home schooled students have significant behavioral problems.
C.Home schooled students are shy and timid when encountering new social situations.
D.Home schooled students are equal or do better than conventional schooled students.
What is the correspondence principle?

A.The social structure of schools reflects their society.
B.Family structure is based on the school’s structure.
C.Students can learn easier through distance education.
D.Large corporations control what is taught in American schools.
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?

A.sanctified
B.profane
C.sacred
D.civil
Which sociological perspective is aligned with the belief religion attaches meaning to our lives, provides emotion comfort during times of sorrow, creates a sense of solidarity with others and provides guidelines with which to direct our lives?

A.the feminist perspective
B.functionalism
C.symbolic ineractionism
D.the conflict perspective
What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?

A.It provides emotional comfort.
B.It is a means of social solidarity.
C.It is a means of adaptation.
D.It is a means of social control.
What conclusion did epidemiologist Lynda Powell and her colleagues reach after studying research articles on the effects of participation in organized religion on health?

A.People who attended religious services at least once a week have 25% fewer deaths than people who do not attend church.
B.The stress of conforming to church doctrine causes a 25% greater amount of deaths among dedicated church goers than non-goers.
C.There is no difference in the death rates of church goers and non-church goers.
D.Roman Catholics have the lowest death rates of all church goers and Baptists have the highest death rate.
Jews, Christians and Muslims all believe in one God who, as creator of the universe, is concerned about our actions and will hold us accountable for them. In this sense, Jews, Christians and Muslims all share the same ________.

A.cosmology
B.religion
C.mythology
D.ritual
Marx’s notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.

A.”If people believe the situation is real, it is real in the consequences.”
B.”The sum of the whole is no greater than the sum of the parts.”
C.”Religion is … the opium of the people.”
D.”You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.”
What does the “spirit of capitalism” refer to as proposed by Max Weber?

A.It is a doctrine emphasizing conspicuous consumption and individual success.
B.It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.
C.It is a doctrine legitimating the social order and the inequalities that accompany it.
D.It is a way of thinking about the supernatural and how the supernatural is a part of religion.
What is the belief that all objects in the world have spirits, some of which are dangerous?

A.animism
B.ecclesia
C.new age religion
D.evangelism
Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

A.a bizarre group with bizarre rituals
B.a new or different religion
C.a subdivision of a dominant religion
D.a group of people dedicated to their own needs
The perception of health varies considerably among societies of the world. The definition of what constitutes health and illness is most defined by which of the following variables?

A.the culture of society
B.the life expectancy of members of the society
C.the life span of members of the society
D.the extent of medical services within a society
Because the sociology of medicine focuses on how cultural beliefs, lifestyle and social class influence health and illness, the sociology of medicine is a[n] ________ field of sociology.

A.applied
B.biological
C.clinical
D.theoretical
The definition of health and illness varies from culture to culture and group to group. This variance in definition is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

A.functionalism
B.the conflict perspective
C.symbolic interactionism
D.the feminist perspective
There is a major exam scheduled in today’s sociology class, but Donald has a serious case of the flu. Donald’s professor excused him from the exam. Donald then made an appointment with the health center, and spent the next three days in bed. This is an example of ________ in practice.

A.the medicalization of deviance
B.socialized medicine
C.the conflict perspective
D.the sick role
What is the relationship between industrialization and life expectancy?

A.It is an indirect relationship
B.It is a direct relationship
C.It is a null relationship
D.It is a spurious relationship
Of the following statements, which one is least accurate as it pertains to the professionalization of health care in the United States?

A.Prior to 1800 virtually anyone could be a physician by simply proclaiming themselves as one.
B.There were more medical schools in the United States in the 1800s than in the early 1900s.
C.Prior to 1900 medical training was brief and did not even require a high school diploma.
D.When medicine became a profession, it immediately increased the availability of health care by licensing more doctors
Which of the following examples would best illustrate the functionalist perspective of the medicalization of society?

A.Wrinkles are seen as a sign of the natural aging process
B.The medicalization of acne, baldness, and weight gain broadens the customer base of the medical establishment.
C.Medicalization reflects the growing power of the medical establishment.
D.Medicalization increases the profit of physicians.
In the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, what did the medical staff at Tuskegee University do?

A.They provided low cost care for men infected with venereal disease during World War II
B.They discovered a new strain of syphilis, but did not report it to the Center for Disease Control
C.They used unauthorized, experimental treatments for syphilis.
D.They let men diagnosed with syphilis go untreated so they could follow the disease.

 

Quiz 8


In the Demographic Transition Theory, a “population explosion” traditionally occurs in the ________ stage.

A.first
B.second
C.third
D.fourth
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children?

A.Men control reproductive choices in the poor nations.
B.Women cannot afford to spend money on birth control.
C.Women are not educated on how to use birth control.
D.Large families are rewarded socially and economically  
Which of the following conditions is a declining standard of living most likely to create in a country?

A.political instability
B.the growth of multinationals
C.citizen apathy
D.economic alienation
What variables are most often included on a population pyramid?

A.race, percentage of population by race, level of education
B.race, percentage of population by race, sex
C.sex, percentage of population by race, age
D.sex, percentage of population by sex, age categories
To determine a country’s growth rate, what three variables would a demographer use?

A.race, sex, life expectancy
B.life span, life expectancy, migration
C.fertility, mortality, migration
D.race, fertility, life span
Jim and Milly are one of ten couples who have decided to buy and restore an older house in a deteriorated urban neighborhood. Jim and Milly are part of a movement referred to as ________.

A.urban renovation
B.gentrification
C.urban networking
D.city upgrading
Based on Gans’ typologies of city dwellers, what classification do the elderly, mentally ill, and drug addicts fall into?

A.ethnic villagers
B.cosmopolite
C.the trapped
D.deprived urbanite
Techniques that protect your “personal space”, such as using a newspaper to shield yourself from others, are known as ________.

A.the diffusion of responsibility
B.alienation
C.the norm of non-involvement
D.group polarization
Actions, such as lynchings, performed by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual is referred to as ________.

A.collective behavior
B.cultural deviance
C.bureaucratic ritualism
D.the Peter Principle
Yamaguchi and Horowitz found that crowds take deliberate steps to reach some goals. In view of this, how would sociologists characterize the members of a crowd?

A.They are people vulnerable to suggestion.
B.They are irrational individuals with no sense of conformity.
C.They are rational individuals acting in unison.
D.They are people who are oppressed expressing their frustration
Collective behavior always involves something unusual. How did Turner and Killian predict people would react to deal with the novel situation?

A.They would begin milling around irrationally.
B.They become vulnerable to suggestion
C.They develop new norms to deal with the new situation.
D.They resort to chaos to guide their actions.
What does research show as the most common background condition of urban riots?

A.Too many people in too small an area that increases stress.
B.Poverty and racial differences among residents.
C.Frustration and anger brought on by feelings of deprivation
D.Corrupt government and aggressive policing that damage the sense of community
Sociologists who studied the panic following a fire at the Beverly Hills Supper Club found that the majority of those employed by the supper club did not panic but continued to help their customers or fight the fire. Sociologists use the term “________” to describe the employees’ actions.

A.role extension
B.norm of reciprocity
C.role exclusion
D.norm of crowd behavior
The popularity of “Tickle Me Elmo,” Beanie Babies, and Cabbage Patch Kids are all examples of behaviors that appear quickly and then quickly disappear. These situations are referred to as ________.

A.flash mobs
B.urban legends
C.crazes
D.entertainment cults
An urban legend is a story with an ironic twist that sounds realistic, but is false. According to folklorist Jan Brunvand, urban legends teach us three moral lessons about life. Which of the following is not one of the three moral lessons identified by Brunvand?

A.The stories serve as warnings.
B.Each story is related to social change.
C.Each story is calculated to instill fear.
D.Each story should be taken seriously.
The emergence of the Ku Klux Klan following the Civil War is an example of which type of social movement?

A.retaliatory social movement
B.millenarian social movement
C.reactive social movement
D.new social movement
Social movements that seek to change particular aspects of individuals, such as the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and Million Man March, are best qualified as which type of social movement?

A.alterative
B.transformative
C.reformative
D.redemptive
What did Karl Marx blame for the transformation of most societies from being Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft?

A.the Protestant Reformation
B.the invention of capitalism
C.the invention of socialism
D.the Great Awakening
The realignment of the world’s powers that occurred after World War II is called ________.

A.transnationalism
B.multinationalism
C.geopolitics
D.international convergence
The theories that propose societies may take different routes but eventually lead to the same stage of development are ________ theories.

A.unlinear
B.reformative
C.transformative
D.multilinear
What concept is central to all evolutionary theories, regardless of their type?

A.social stratification
B.cultural progress
C.the development of cities
D.social inequality
According to Marx, human history shows that struggle develops between the thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis. Marx called this historical change a ________.

A.radical transofmration
B.cyclical activity
C.dialectical process
D.analytic process
The Japanese adopted baseball as a national sport after they saw American GIs playing it following World War II. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of ________.

A.a discovery
B.diffusion
C.an invention
D.cultural lag
Although all the faculty members of Acadia University have new state of the art computers several professors refuse to use them and even replaced them with personal typewriters. This is an example of ________.

A.cultural diffusion
B.cultural contracts
C.cultural lag
D.cultural reformulation
What did historian James Fink cite as the primary reason women were transformed from producers of food and clothing to consumers of national-brand canned goods, prepared foods, and ready made clothes?

A.the credit card
B.no fault divorce
C.the automobile
D.women’s liberation

 

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