PSYC101

Week 1 Quiz 1


Dr. Sanchez approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious thoughts and conflicts within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that he accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

A.Sociocultural
B.Learning
C.Cognitive
Correct D.Psychodynamic
Answer Key: D
Researchers are studying the effects of nicotine on driving. The participants are divided into two groups. One group is provided with nicotine cigarettes and the other with fake cigarettes that taste and smell like real cigarettes but do not contain nicotine. The fake cigarettes are an example of a(n)

A.Dependent variable
Correct B.Placebo
C.Random assignment
D.Experimental group
Answer Key: B
Maureen is a psychology major who is conducting a study on memory. The participants in her experiment study a long list of words and then recall the list by verbalizing the words to Maureen. Maureen knows which words are correct, and whenever a participant states an incorrect word, Maureen inadvertently shifts her eyes and makes a note on her notepad. As a result, the participants change their recall behavior and tend to recall fewer words thereafter. This scenario illustrates a(n) ________.

A.Placebo effect
Correct B.Experimenter effect
C.Correlation coefficient
D.Double-blind study
Answer Key: B
A(n) ________ psychologist studies how an individual’s past behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, affect current behavior.

A.Cognitive
B.Biological
C.Sociocultural
Correct D.Learning
Answer Key: D
Which of the following is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts?

A.Functionalism
Correct B.Psychoanalysis
C.Phrenology
D.Introspection
Answer Key: B
A precise explanation of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring a process, is called a/an:

A.Theory
Correct B.Operational definition
C.Variable
D.Norm
Answer Key: B
An early approach to scientific psychology, called ________, emphasized the purpose of behavior and consciousness.

A.Introspection
B.Psychoanalysis
Correct C.Functionalism
D.Structuralism
Answer Key: C
Which of the following is a potential shortcoming of laboratory observation?

Correct A.The presence of researchers and special equipment may cause subjects to act differently than they would in their natural surroundings.
B.Results are inaccurate because many people have a distorted view of their own abilities and traits.
C.Scientists do not take such research very seriously.
D.Subjects do not all get the same degree of detail in their instructions on how to behave.
Answer Key: A
A ________ has a medical degree (M.D.), with a specialty in psychiatry, and does work similar to that of a clinical psychologist but is likely to take a more biological approach.

A.Clinical psychologist
B.Psychotherapist
C.Psychoanalyst
Correct D.Psychiatrist
Answer Key: D
Which of the following cannot be hand picked by a researcher?

Correct A.random assignment
B.independent variables
C.the research method used
D.all of the above
Answer Key: A

Quiz 2

According to Freud, the psychosexual stage that occurs during the first year of life is called the ___________ stage.

A.Latency
B.Anal
Correct C.Oral
D.Phallic
Answer Key: C
Davey is a person who strives to be a perfectionist. When he does not meet his self-imposed goals, he is likely to feel guilt and shame. A Freudian would probably say that Davey’s personality is dominated by his ________.

A.Id
B.Ego
Correct C.Superego
D.Libido
Answer Key: C
Which of the following is an effective approach for estimating heritability of a trait or behavior?

A.Studying parents whose children look like them and take after them in many ways.
B.Comparing fraternal twins with same-sex siblings to determine if the twins are more alike
C.Comparing blood relatives within a family to determine if a trait “runs” in the family
Correct D.Comparing twins to determine whether identical twins are more alike than are fraternal twins
Answer Key: D
According to Carl Jung, part of the legacy of human history is a ________.

Correct A.A collective unconscious shared by all human beings containing universal memories, symbols, images, and themes
B.Womb envy shared by all men, consisting of universal memories and symbols of the “Earth Mother”
C.Mystical unconscious shared by all human beings containing symbols from each of the major world religions.
D.Penis envy shared by all women, consisting of universal memories and symbols of the “Powerful Father”
Answer Key: A
Manny is an artist. He is creative, imaginative, and curious. Which of the Big Five personality traits pertains to Manny’s characteristic behavior?

A.Introversion vs. Extroversion
Correct B.Openness to experience vs. resistance to experience
C.Neuroticism vs. emotional stability
D.Agreeableness vs. antagonism
Answer Key: B
A method used by parents to enforce moral standards is power assertion, which includes all of the following except ________.

A.Threats
B.Physical punishment
C.Taking away privileges
Correct D.Induction
Answer Key: D
Fifteen-year-old Terrill is currently asking himself the question “Who am I?” He is considering possible career options and is setting a goal to attend college. Terrill is in the process of resolving Erikson’s crisis of ________.

Correct A.Identity vs. role confusion
B.Intimacy vs. isolation
C.Ego integrity vs. despair
D.Trust vs. mistrust
Answer Key: A
The fastest growing segment of the population in North America consists of people ________.

A.Age 40 – 50
B.Age 20 – 30
C.Age 60 – 65
Correct D.Over age 85
Answer Key: D
A culture in which people tend to see themselves as autonomous and prize individual goals and wishes above duty and relations with others would be described as a(n) ________.

Correct A.Individualist
B.Autonomic
C.Narcissistic
D.Collectivist
Answer Key: A
Children who have been beaten, neglected, or routinely subjected to verbal or physical abuse by their parents are more likely than other children to ________.

A.Abide by the law
Correct B.Have more emotional problems
C.Attend college
D.Stay in school
Answer Key: B

Quiz 3

Hormones that regulate the development and functioning of reproductive organs are called ________ hormones.

A.Endorphin
B.Dopamine
C.Melatonin
Correct D.Sex
Answer Key: D
Which of the following act like antennas, receiving messages from as many as 10,000 other cells and transmitting these messages toward the cell body?

Correct A.Dendrites
B.Glial cells
C.Myelin sheaths
D.Axons
Answer Key: A
April spots the boy that she has a crush on sitting by his friends. Her heart begins to pound, her hands get sweaty, and her cheeks feel hot. April’s ________ has/have been activated.

A.Spinal cord
B.Skeletal nervous system
Correct C.Autonomic nervous system
D.Somatic nervous system
Answer Key: C
The most important function of endorphins is to ________.

A.Promote digestion and regulate metabolism
B.Affect the functioning of target organs and tissue
Correct C.Enable neurons to excite or inhibit each other
D.Increase the body’s sensitivity to pain.
Answer Key: C
Which brain area is primarily involved in emotional arousal?

Correct A.Amygdala
B.Thalamus
C.Hippocampus
D.Hypothalamus
Answer Key: A
Freud called the unconscious wishes and thoughts expressed symbolically in our dreams the ________ content

Correct A.Latent
B.Marginal
C.Manifest
D.Patent
Answer Key: A
The sociocognitive approach to hypnosis suggests that ________.

A.hypnosis is a unique state distinct from normal consciousness
B.the hypnotized person is consciously faking or playacting
Correct C.hypnosis is an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject
D.there is a split in consciousness so that one part of the mind operates independently from the other
Answer Key: C
Which one of the following describes narcolepsy

A.Difficulty in staying asleep or falling asleep
Correct B.A sleep disorder involving sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or actual asleep.
C.Extended periods of chronic sleeplessness
D.A disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke.
Answer Key: B
In very large doses, ________ drugs can cause convulsions, heart failure, and death

A.Opiate
B.Depressant
Correct C.Stimulant
D.Psychedelics
Answer Key: C
The problem-focused theory of dreaming states that ________.

Correct A.The purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems
B.Dreaming is a by-product of a process of elimination or strengthening neural connections
C.The purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts
D.There is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brainstem signals
Answer Key: A

Quiz 4-midterm


Which of the following is the most complete and accurate definition of psychology?

Correct A.The study of behavior and mental processes
B.The study of the mind of humans and other animals
C.The study of mental health and illness
D.The study of the human mind
Answer Key: A
Empirical evidence is derived from careful observation, experimentation, and ______________.

A.Psychology
Correct B.Measurement
C.Psychobabble
D.Common sense
Answer Key: B
Graphology or handwriting analysis, uses precise measurements in order to determine personality characteristics from a sample of one’s handwriting. However, there is little empirical evidence to suggest that graphology is accurate in determining one’s personality from a handwriting sample. Graphology is an example of ______________.

A.Fortune-telling
B.Common sense
Correct C.Pseudoscience
D.Numerology
Answer Key: C
Mark has a strong desire to quit smoking. A psychologist from the biological perspective would most likely try to help by _____________.

A.Delivering a shock to Mark’s wrist juts as he inhales
B.Probing Mark’s unconscious desire to smoke and his need for oral fulfillment.
Correct C.Finding a drug that helps Mark’s craving for nicotine
D.Emphasizing that smoking is a decision and that Mark has the cognitive control to quit.
Answer Key: C
The _________________ perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads, including mental process, such as perception, memory, language, or problem solving.

A.Biological
B.Learning
Correct C.Cognitive
D.Sociocultural
Answer Key: C
Several middle-school girls were watching their classmates, Jon and Jason, engage in a rough-and-tumble wrestling match. The attention of the girls seemed to intensity the boys’ play. A psychologist trained in the psychoanalytic perspective would most likely wonder, _______________.

A.What are the basic emotional reactions evoked by the presence of the girls
B.Do these boys have smaller head bumps devoted to ‘cautiousness’ than most boys
C.What is the purpose of rough-and-tumble play in the adaptive changes of early adolescence
Correct D.Did these boys have early childhood traumas that unconsciously cause aggressive behavior.
Answer Key: D
Making a generalization based on a personal experience or a few examples is referred to as ______________.

Correct A.Argument by anecdote
B.Examination of evidence
C.Principle of falsifiability
D.Analysis of assumptions
Answer Key: A
Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, and values are called ____________.

A.Laboratory observations
B.Control conditions
Correct C.Psychological tests
D.Field research
Answer Key: C
A psychological tests is said to be valid if it ________________.

Correct A.Measures what it is designed to measure
B.Compares results against established standards of performance
C.Produces the same results from one time to the next
D.Allows test-takers to fully demonstrate the extent of their abilities
Answer Key: A
When two variables are not related, the correlation coefficient will be close to ___________.

Correct A.0
B.-1
C.+1
D.+10
Answer Key: A
A researcher plans to investigate whether a cup of hot milk at night helps people relax so that they fall asleep quickly. In this study, _____________.

A.The independent variable is the amount of time it takes the person to fall asleep
B.The independent variable is the lab in which the research is conducted.
Correct C.The independent variable is the hot milk at bedtime
D.The independent variable is the hypothesis of the study.
Answer Key: C
An inactive substance or fake treatment that is used as a control in an experiment is called a(n)____________.

A.Dependent variable
B.Experimental group
Correct C.Placebo
D.Control condition
Answer Key: C
A(n) ________________ is a characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling.

A.Personality
Correct B.Trait
C.Defense mechanism
D.Archetype
Answer Key: B
Jesse becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud’s model of the mind, her “id” would unconsciously tell her, ____________.

A.”Thou shalt not kill.”
B.”I’m going to tear this program in half!”
C.What, me angry? I could never get angry.”
Correct D.”I’m so angry I could kill that player!”
Answer Key: D
One of the most influential trait theorists was ____________ who recognized that not all traits have equal weight and significance in people’s lives.

A.Abraham Maslow
B.John B. Watson
Correct C.Gordon Allport
D.Karen Horney
Answer Key: C
Rachel is talkative, sociable, and adventurous. She loves to be the center of attention. Which of the ‘Big Five’ personality traits pertains to Rachel’s characteristic behavior?

A.Agreeableness v. antagonism
B.Openness to experience v. resistance
Correct C.Extraversion v. introversion
D.Neuroticism v. emotional stability
Answer Key: C
______________ is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.

A.Reciprocal determinism
Correct B.Heritability
C.Factor analysis
D.Congruence
Answer Key: B
In behavioral-genetic research, __________________ includes the family background in which you grew up and the experiences you shared with your siblings and parents.

A.Surface structure
B.Nonshared environment
Correct C.Shared environment
D.Deep structure
Answer Key: C
According to Maslow, the most important aspects of personality are the ____________________.

A.Big Five personality traits
B.Instincts and repressed conflicts of a person
Correct C.Qualities of the self-actualized person
D.Reinforcers and punishers in a person’s learning history.
Answer Key: C
According to Carl Rogers, ______________ is love and support given to another with no strings attached.

A.The condition of worth
Correct B.Unconditional positive regard
C.Existentialism
D.Self-actualization
Answer Key: B
After implantation of the zygote is completed, the ____________ stage of prenatal development begins.

Correct A.Embryonic
B.Structural
C.Germinal
D.Fetal
Answer Key: A
Which of the following outcomes is associated with maternal exposure to lead during pregnancy?

A.Defects in the eye, ear, and heart
Correct B.Attention problems and lower IQ
C.Increased likelihood of prematurity and low birth weight
D.Mental retardation, blindness, and other physical disorders
Answer Key: B
Researchers have found that “baby talk” by parents _________________.

Correct A.Helps babies learn the melody and rhythm of their native language
B.Holds children back from learning real language faster
C.Promotes telegraphic speech, especially if it is overused
D.Teaches children the correct grammar of their native language
Answer Key: A
Noam Chomsky viewed language acquisition in children as the result of _______________.

Correct A.An innate mental module that allows young children to develop language
B.Reinforcement by adults of correct language production
C.Utilitarian learning in which children learn that correct language produces desirable results
D.Classical conditioning of innate utterances produced by infants and young children.
Answer Key: A
In Jean Piaget’s theory, the process of absorbing new information into existing mental categories is called __________________.

Correct A.Assimilation
B.Accommodation
C.Conservation
D.Egocentrism
Answer Key: A
Layla understands that “Daddy” is her father but does not understand that she is Daddy’s daughter. Piaget would suggest that Layla is in the ___________ stage.

Correct A.Preoperational
B.Formal operations
C.Sensorimotor
D.Concrete operations
Answer Key: A
All of the following would be considered “gender differences” EXCEPT the difference between men and women in regard to ______________.

A.Sexual attitudes
B.Doing laundry
C.Reading romance novels
Correct D.Color blindness
Answer Key: D
Learning theorists believe that gender socialization begins _______________.

Correct A.At the moment of a child’s birth
B.When the child comprehends speech
C.When children label themselves boys or girls
D.When children have developed a secure gender identity
Answer Key: A
Comparisons of hormone production in boys and girls show that ______________.

A.Before puberty, boys have higher levels of estrogen than girls do
B.From puberty on, boys and girls produce the same amounts of androgens and estrogens
C.Before puberty, girls have higher levels of estrogen than do boys
Correct D.From puberty on, boys produce more androgens and girls produce more estrogens.
Answer Key: D
Adolescent girls who are lonely, depressed, worried, or angry are more likely than boys to express these concerns by _______________.

A.Engaging in rule-breaking and risk-taking behaviors
Correct B.Internalizing their feelings
C.Becoming aggressive and acting out sexually
D.Attempting suicide
Answer Key: B
During Erikson’s stage of _____________, a person is acquiring new physical and mental skills, setting goals, and enjoying newfound talents, but must learn to control impulses.

Correct A.Initiative versus guilt
B.Generativity versus stagnation
C.Autonomy versus shame and doubt
D.Ego integrity versus despair
Answer Key: A
As people move into old age, the speed of cognitive processing ______________.

Correct A.Slows significantly
B.Increases for those who take vitamins
C.Slows rapidly
D.Does not change at all
Answer Key: A
Which of the following is NOT one of the child-rearing practices suggested by child development research?

A.Set high expectations that are appropriate to the child’s age
B.Allow children to express their disagreements about rules
C.Encourage empathy by showing how fighting hurts and disrupts others
Correct D.Always punish behavior that violates family rules
Answer Key: D
The spinal cord is actually an extension of the _______________.

A.Body’s visceral organs
B.Skeletal nervous system
Correct C.Brain
D.Sensory nerves
Answer Key: C
Which is one function of the myelin sheath?

A.To form cranial nerves
Correct B.To speed up neural transmission
C.To create interference among neural signals
D.To release neurotransmitters
Answer Key: B
Which hormones are involved in emotion and stress?

A.Estrogen
B.Melatonin
Correct C.Adrenal hormones
D.Progesterone
Answer Key: C
The outer part of each adrenal gland produces _____________, which increases blood-sugar levels and boosts energy.

A.Estrogen
B.Androgen
Correct C.Cortisol
D.Melatonin
Answer Key: C
Which structure of the brain is called the ‘gateway to memory?’

A.Amygdala
Correct B.Hippocampus
C.Cerebellum
D.Thalamus
Answer Key: B
______________ area is responsible for language comprehension and is located in the left ________ lobe.

A.Broca’s; temporal
Correct B.Wernicke’s; temporal
C.Broca’s; frontal
D.Wernicke’s; frontal
Answer Key: B
According to the text, what is the primary nervous system stimulus that informs the biological clock?

Correct A.Visual
B.Taste
C.Smell
D.Balance
Answer Key: A
Emilio is currently in Stage 2 sleep. This means his EEG is showing ________ waves.

A.only delta
B.occasional delta
Correct C.rapid, high peaking
D.small, irregular brain
Answer Key: C
Depressants exert their influence on the brain by _____________.

Correct A.Slowing down activity in the central nervous system
B.Mimicking the action of endorphins, producing a feeling of euphoria
C.Disrupting normal thought and perceptual processes
D.Speeding up activity in the central nervous system
Answer Key: A
Which of the following drugs is a psychedelic?

Correct A.LSD
B.Alcohol
C.Amphetamines
D.Heroin
Answer Key: A
At the orientation for first-year students, April felt overwhelmed by the number of people, the multiple conversations and the forms that needed to be completed. April is experiencing ____________.

Correct A.Sensory overload
B.Notable differences
C.Sensory adaptation
D.Sensory deprivation
Answer Key: A
Which of the following is a Gestalt principle?

A.Brightness
B.Saturation
Correct C.Proximity
D.Acuity
Answer Key: C
The thing that makes a middle-C note on a flute sound very different from a middle-C note on a clarinet is ____________.

A.Frequency
B.Loudness
Correct C.Timbre
D.Pitch
Answer Key: C
What two senses keep us informed about the movement of our own body?

A.Homeostasis and balance
B.Equilibrium and homeostasis
Correct C.Equilibrium and Kinesthesis
D.Kinesthesis and homeostasis
Answer Key: C
The deepest stage of sleep is______________ sleep.

A.Stage 1
B.Stage 2
C.REM
Correct D.Stage 4
Answer Key: D
As Bridget is walking through a parking lot, a bicyclist swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm’s way. Soon, Bridget’s heart begins to decrease and return to a regular rhythm. This calming reaction is due to the action of Bridget’s ______________.

A.somatic nervous system
B.skeletal nervous system
Correct C.parasympathetic nervous system
D.sympathetic nervous system
Answer Key: C
How did infant rhesus monkeys that were raised with both an artificial “wire mother” and an artificial “cloth mother” respond to these objects?

A.They became attached to the artificial mother that supplied milk.
B.They avoided both mothers except when they were hungry.
C.They would not eat or drink, and soon died.
Correct D.They would cling to the “cloth mother,” especially when they were frightened or startled.
Answer Key: D

  Quiz 5
_____________ is the tendency for people to pay attention only to evidence that supports their beliefs.

A.The availability heuristic
Correct B.Confirmation bias
C.Hindsight bias
D.Mental set
Answer Key: B
Which of the following is NOT a component of the triarchic theory of intelligence

Correct A.Emotional intelligence
B.Componential intelligence
C.Contextual intelligence
D.Experiential intelligence
Answer Key: A
A _____________________ is a network of knowledge, associations, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular aspect of the world.

A.Proposition
B.Cognitive heuristic
Correct C.Cognitive schema
D.Prototype
Answer Key: C
Which of the following statements about the difference between formal and informal reasoning is correct?

Correct A.Formal reasoning uses algorithms rather than heuristics
B.Formal reasoning is more useful for solving everyday problems
C.Formal reasoning involves dialectical reasoning
D.Informal reasoning is purposeful mental activity that involves operating on information in order to reach conclusions.
Answer Key: A
________________ is a state of tension that exists when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are inconsistent with one another.

A.Mental set
B.Postdecision dissonance
Correct C.Cognitive dissonance
D.Hindsight bias
Answer Key: C
_____________ memory refers to a vivid detailed recollection of an emotional event.

A.Semantic
B.Declarative
Correct C.Flashbulb
D.Episodic
Answer Key: C
Which of the following tests for recall?

A.Matching questions
B.True-false questions
C.Multiple choice questions
Correct D.Essay questions
Answer Key: D
The ______________ theory of forgetting proposes the idea that new information entering memory can cause older information to be replaced.

Correct A.Replacement
B.Decay
C.Interference
D.Cue-dependent
Answer Key: A
__________ is defined as conscious, intentional recollection of an event or an item of information

A.Recall
B.Recognition
Correct C.Explicit memory
D.Implicit memory
Answer Key: C
Which of the following is NOT a type of long-term memory?

A.Semantic memory
B.Episodic memory
C.Procedural memory
Correct D.Working memory
Answer Key: D

 
 

Week 6 Quiz 5


Who conducted an experiment on the effects of punishment on learning that was, in reality, a classic experiment on obedience?

A.Solomon Asch
Correct B.Stanley Milgram
C.Phillip Zimbardo
D.Muzafer Sherif
Answer Key: B
What are two types of causal attributions that people make?

Correct A.Dispositional and situational
B.Environmental and situational
C.Personal and dispositional
D.Implicit and explicit
Answer Key: A
What is the most effective strategy to reduce prejudice and us-them thinking?

A.Encouraging social contact between groups
Correct B.Having groups work together on a task requiring cooperation to reach a common goal
C.Establishing legal equality of all groups
D.Education about social issues and diversity
Answer Key: B
Is the Stanford prison study, what was it that caused the guards to treat the prisoners harshly?

A.The instructions given to the guards
B.The actions of the prisoners
Correct C.The social context
D.Peer pressure from other guards
Answer Key: C
Which of the following is a sign of groupthink

A.An illusion of vulnerability
B.An illusion of anonymity
C.Unbiased information seeking
Correct D.Self-censorship
Answer Key: D
In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning in dogs, the food dish was the _______________.

Correct A.Conditioned stimulus
B.Unconditioned stimulus
C.Conditioned response
D.Unconditioned response
Answer Key: A
What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement?

A.There is no difference-the terms are synonymous
B.Punishment involves the presentation of an aversive consequence, but negative reinforcement involves the removal of a positive consequence
C.Negative reinforcement is part of operant conditioning, but punishment is used in classical conditioning
Correct D.Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior but punishment weakens it
Answer Key: D
Albert Bandura is well known for his study of __________________.

Correct A.Observational learning
B.Latent learning
C.Conditioned taste aversion
D.Punishment
Answer Key: A
In the “Little Albert” study, what was the unconditioned stimulus?

A.A white rat
Correct B.A loud noise
C.A Santa Claus mask
D.A neutral stimulus
Answer Key: B
What procedure would be used to teach pigeons to play Ping Pong?

A.Classical conditioning
B.Observational learning
Correct C.Shaping
D.Systematic desensitization
Answer Key: C

 
Final

Week 8 – Final Exam


Recovering a memory is like a _____________.

A.Replaying a videotape of an event and filling in the missing sensory experiences, such as smell
B.Reading a short story in which the plot is detailed but mental images must be generated
C.Hearing the soundtrack of a story without access to the visual, and other sensory images
Correct D.Watching unconnected frames of a movie and figuring out what the rest of the scene was like.
Answer Key: D
Which term is used to describe the confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you.

Correct A.Confabulation
B.Flashbulb memories
C.Serial position effects
D.Priming
Answer Key: A
Detective Adams interrogates eyewitnesses of crimes on a regular basis. To ensure that their testimony is accurate, it is important that he ____________________.

A.Ask leading questions
B.Make suggestive comments
Correct C.Avoid misleading information
D.Provide misleading information
Answer Key: C
The relearning method of measuring implicit memory, devised by Ebbinghaus involves _____________.

A.Recognition of previous information shared
B.Recall of previously performed tasks
Correct C.Studying information or a task learned previously
D.Reteaching of information learned at an earlier age.
Answer Key: C
In the three-box model, all incoming information must make a brief stop in the _________.

A.Short-term memory
B.Long-term memory
Correct C.Sensory register
D.Working memory
Answer Key: C
When you roller blade, you are relying on ______________ memory.

A.Semantic
B.Episodic
Correct C.Procedural
D.Declarative
Answer Key: C
Autobiographical memory begins when ___________________.

A.A child turns one
B.A child is able to think in the abstract
Correct C.A self-concept is established
D.Routines have been established
Answer Key: C
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience is called ____________.

A.Behavior modification
B.Higher-order conditioning
Correct C.Learning
D.Shaping
Answer Key: C
When Alan feeds his fish, he notices that they swim to the top as soon as he turns on the aquarium light. In this example, the _______________ is the conditioned stimulus.

A.Presence of Alan near the aquarium
B.Fish swimming to the top
Correct C.Aquarium light
D.Fish food
Answer Key: C
In classical conditioning, if a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus, then _______________ occurs.

A.Instinctive drift
Correct B.Extinction
C.Counterconditioning
D.Discrimination
Answer Key: B
Shortly after Martin and his wife at filet mignon with bearnaise sauce, Martin fell ill with the flu. Classical conditioning occurred and _________ became a conditioned stimulus for nausea.

A.The type of china used by the restaurant
B.The presence of Martin’s wife
C.The soft light from the candles
Correct D.Bearnaise sauce
Answer Key: D
Punishment ____________ the response

Correct A.Weakens
B.Strengthens
C.Has no effect on
D.Depends on
Answer Key: A
In their study of three groups of rats in a maze, Tolman and his colleague Honzik noted that ______________ occurs without obvious reinforcement.

A.Operant conditioning
B.Classical conditioning
Correct C.Latent learning
D.Successive approximation
Answer Key: C
___________________ psychologists study how roles, attitudes, relationships, and groups influence people to do things they would not necessarily do on their own

Correct A.Social
B.Cultural
C.Clinical
D.Counseling
Answer Key: A
Marco enters an elevator and stands in it facing the back instead of turning around to face the elevator door. In this example, Marco violates ________________.

A.His gender role
B.A social role
Correct C.A norm
D.A stereotype
Answer Key: C
When we make situational attributions, we are identifying the cause of an action as something

Correct A.In the environment
B.In the person’s disposition
C.That is a biological trait
D.With an unconscious motivation
Answer Key: A
________________ is a tendency for all people on a team or a mission together to agree with each other and suppress any dissension among their ranks.

Correct A.Groupthink
B.Conformity
C.Consensus
D.Deindividuation
Answer Key: A
Lucas is making his way across a busy campus between classes. He notices smoke coming from the side of the cafeteria but figures that someone already called the fire department. What phenomenon does this illustrate?

A.Just-world hypothesis
Correct B.Diffusion of responsibility
C.Deindividuation
D.Groupthink
Answer Key: B
_____________ occurs when members of minority groups come to identify with and feel a part of the mainstream culture

A.Socialization
B.Ethnocentrism
Correct C.Acculturation
D.Indoctrination
Answer Key: C
Lindsay has weak feelings of ethnic identity with her Scottish heritage and a strong sense of acculturation with the United States, proclaiming that she is an American and that is that! Lindsay would be considered

A.Separatist
B.Bicultural
Correct C.Assimilated
D.Marginal
Answer Key: C
In what ways do stereotypes distort reality?

Correct A.They exaggerate differences between groups
B.They overestimate differences within other groups
C.They produce many different perceptions
D.They show that members of a group can be different
Answer Key: A
The need to avoid stereotyping was illustrated in the story of the Bahamas vacation of social psychologist Roger Brown. Brown noticed that the people he met from the Bahamas were rude, sullen, and unfriendly. By the end of this trip, Brown had concluded that ______________.

A.The people that he met had to deal with so many demanding tourists that it was difficult for them to remain friendly.
Correct B.The expression on his own face had been wintry and unrelaxed, and so Bahamas residents assumed he was not interested in them and acted in a noncommittal manner
C.Ethnocentrism is strong in the Bahamas, creating an us-them barrier between the residents and tourists.
D.The majority of the residents who interact with tourists on a regular basis have become ethic separatists tied to the tourism industry for economic reasons.
Answer Key: B
The primary purpose of the DSM is to ________________.

A.Help psychologists assess normal, as well as abnormal behavior
B.Keep the number of diagnostic categories of mental disorders to a minimum
Correct C.Provide descriptive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders
D.Describe the causes of common psychological disorders.
Answer Key: C
Psychological tests are used to infer a person’s motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person’s interpretations of ambiguous stimuli are called _____________.

A.Clinical judgment tests
B.Inventories
C.Objective tests
Correct D.Projective tests
Answer Key: D
The chief characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder is _________________.

Correct A.Continuous, uncontrollable anxiety or worry
B.Short-lived but intense feelings of spontaneous anxiety
C.Excessive fear of a particular situation
D.Repeated thoughts used to ward off anxious feelings
Answer Key: A
Kellie is extremely fearful in situations in which she must eat in public or write in the presence of others. What Kellie has is classified as _________________.

A.A generalized anxiety disorder
B.An idiosyncratic phobia
C.An obsessive-compulsive disorder
Correct D.A social phobia
Answer Key: D
______________ is a disorder in which a person experiences episodes of mania and depression.

A.Generalized anxiety disorder
B.Major depression
Correct C.Bipolar disorder
D.Borderline personality disorder
Answer Key: C
Which of the following is a factor involved in causing depression

A.Repeated experience of violence
B.Vulnerability to stress
C.Cognitive habits
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D
The _____________ model holds that addiction to alcohol or any drug is due primarily to a person’s biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition.

Correct A.Biological
B.Social learning
C.Cognitive
D.Addiction
Answer Key: A
Which of the following is a psychotic disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, emotional flatness, and a loss of motivation?

Correct A.Schizophrenia
B.Psychopath
C.Dissociative identity disorder
D.Paranoid personality disorder
Answer Key: A
Dr. Sardonicus is a clinician who treats clients with psychological disorders. His main approach to treatment includes use of medications and direct intervention in brain function. Dr. Sardonicus is most likely a

A.Psychoanalyst
Correct B.Psychiatrist
C.Psychologist
D.Psychotherapist
Answer Key: B
People suffering from bipolar disorder are helped by taking ________________.

A.An antipsychotic
B.A tranquilizer
Correct C.Lithium carbonate
D.An antidepressant
Answer Key: C
Which below is a reason to be cautious about drug prescription in the treatment of mental disorders?

A.Relapse and dropout rates
B.Difficulty in determining right dosage
C.Unknown risks over time
Correct D.All of the above
Answer Key: D
Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat _____________ that has not responded to other treatments, but the effects are short-lived.

A.Bipolar disorder
Correct B.Severe depression
C.Schizophrenia
D.Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Answer Key: B
The originator of the famous “talking cure” in psychology was ______________.

Correct A.Sigmund Freud
B.Carl Rogers
C.John Watson
D.Albert Ellis
Answer Key: A
Systematic desensitization is based on ___________________.

Correct A.Counter conditioning
B.Operant conditioning
C.Stimulus generalization
D.Spontaneous recovery
Answer Key: A
The technique, invented by Albert Ellis, known as _________________ is a form of cognitive therapy.

A.Transference
Correct B.Rational-emotive therapy
C.Flooding
D.Unconditional positive regard
Answer Key: B
Clients who do well in therapy tend to __________________.

Correct A.Be agreeable and have a positive outlook
B.Have a personal style of avoiding difficulties
C.Have at least 2 siblings
D.Participate in self-help groups
Answer Key: A
Emotions bind people together and ______________.

A.Motivate people to make friends
B.Make them more sensitive
Correct C.Motivate them to achieve their goals
D.Make them stronger
Answer Key: C
Disgust and contempt would typically be considered _______________.

Correct A.Primary
B.Secondary
C.Tertiary
D.Conditioned
Answer Key: A
Simon has damage to his amygdala. It is most likely that he ______________.

Correct A.Has difficulty recognizing fear in others
B.Has lost the capacity to set aside his fear even when the danger is gone
C.Feels excessively manic and euphoric
D.Feels excessively depressed
Answer Key: A
As a child’s cerebral cortex matures, cognitions and emotions __________________.

A.Develop at the same pace
B.Maintain present levels
C.Become less cognitively complex
Correct D.Become more cognitively complex
Answer Key: D
A North American man would be LESS LIKELY than a North American woman to say ____________.

A.”I’m on edge”
Correct B.”I’m worried”
C.”I’m frustrated”
D.”I’m moody.”
Answer Key: B
Children who live or go to school near noisy airports have ___________________.

Correct A.Higher blood pressure and having memory problems
B.Higher blood pressure but are able to easily focus
C.Lower blood pressure and are more distractable
D.Lower blood pressure but are able to easily focus
Answer Key: A
Which of the following is related to having an internal locus of control?

Correct A.Optimism
B.Learned helplessness
C.Pessimism
D.Emotion work
Answer Key: A
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Type A people?

A.Sense of time urgency
B.Ambitiousness
Correct C.Patience
D.Irritability
Answer Key: C
What coping method is being used when a person says, “Well, I may have lost my accounting job, but I always did want a chance to work with people, and now I can find a job that allows me to do that?

Correct A.Reappraising the situation
B.Learning from the experience
C.Making social comparisons
D.Cultivating a sense of humor
Answer Key: A
According to attachment theory of love, anxious or ambivalent lovers worry that ____________.

A.They love their partner too much
Correct B.Their partner will leave them
C.Their partner will never give them space
D.Their partner is not good enough
Answer Key: B
Although Kinsey saw women as being ___________________.

A. Completely different from men anatomically
B.Caring more about affection than sexual satisfaction
Correct C.As sexually motivated as men
D.Less sexually motivated than men.
Answer Key: C
When gender roles change because of social and economic shifts in society, so do ___________.

A.Economic and social arrangements
B.Rates of marriage
Correct C.Sexual scripts
D.Rates of divorce
Answer Key: C

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