pathology of death investigation CRMJ498

Final Exam
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Part 1 of 1 – 53.5/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
The development of a national DNA database in the U.S. started in

A.1970

B.1980

C.1990

D.2000

Answer Key: C

Question 2 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
In a constitutional democracy, when enforcing the criminal law:

A.officials are restricted by the law of criminal procedure.

B.officials are restricted by the legislature.

C.officials are restricted by popular opinion.

D.officials have wide latitude to decide what actions to take.

Answer Key: A

Question 3 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
Firearms can be broken down into two groups. What are they?

A.Semi-auto and revolvers

B.Large caliber and small caliber

C.Pre-NRA and post-NRA

D.Rifled arms and smooth bored guns

Answer Key: D

Question 4 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Which of the following contain eccrine glands?

A.Palms of the hands
B.Soles of the feet

C.Fingers

D.All of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 5 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
Tardieu’s spots are usually associated with what mode or type of asphyxia?

A.Strangulation

B.Mechanical asphyxia

C.Hanging

D.Chemical asphyxia

Answer Key: C

Question 6 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
Generally speaking, the VSA identifies:

A.Lies in the form of mental telepathy

B.Subliminal thoughts manifested through the mind

C.Galvanic responses through skin, heart rate changes

D.A change in the speech and vocal response

Answer Key: D

Question 7 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Through firearms investigation, often times it can be determined:

A.Where the violator was standing

B.How far away from the victim the violator was standing

C.If the violator had ingested ANY alcohol within the last two hours [prior to the incident
D.Both A and B

Answer Key: D

Question 8 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
The term “due process revolution” refers to:

A.The Supreme Court’s expansion of individual rights in the 1960s

B.The Civil unrest that swept the U.S. in the 1960s

C.The passage of the Fourteenth Amendment

D.The adoption of the fundamental fairness doctrine by the Court in the 1930s

Answer Key: A

Question 9 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
As identified by your text, when a laboratory tests a DNA sample they reach one of three conclusions (i.e., interpretations). Which of the following “is not” one of those three interpretations.

A.Inclusion

B.Exclusion

C.Possible Exclusion

D.Inconclusive

Answer Key: C

Question 10 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
The sweat excreted from our fingers is _____ water.

A.50%

B.99%

C.25%

D.10%

Answer Key: B

Question 11 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
Three elements are required for an electrocution to occur. ONE of the following is NOT correct.

A.A high chemical imbalance in the body that promotes the electrical path

B.A charged electrical source

C.A current pathway through the victim

D.A ground

Answer Key: A

Question 12 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Which one of the following is the most likely to be a hotter fire?

A.A human body

B.A house fire

C.A garbage dump
D.A chemical fire

Answer Key: D

Question 13 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
If a defendant’s constitutional right to a speedy trial is violated:

A.The time the defendant spent in jail awaiting trial is deducted from his sentence

B.The charges against the defendant are dismissed

C.The court determines the point at which the trial should have commenced and deducts from the sentence the period of time between then and the date the trial actually started.
D.The prosecution must go back to the grand jury stage and start all over

Answer Key: B

Question 14 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Gunshot residue analysis [GSR] _________________:

A.Is expensive and rarely ever used by crime scene units

B.Lasts longer on the hands than on the fibers of the clothing

C.Lasts longer on the fibers of the firer’s clothing than on hands

D.Is not accepted in the law enforcement community and reveals nothing of substance.

Answer Key: C

Question 15 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
From Investigation and Evaluation, the very first model of a VSA was called _______________.

A.The lying machine

B.Dektor’s waveform and thermograph readout machine
C.Psychological Stress Evaluator

D.Magnitude and barometer apparatus

Answer Key: C

Question 16 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
The flaps of the epidermis that are attached on the edge of a wound show the direction of a bullet. This type of bullet wound is called what?

A.Skipping

B.Grazing

C.Direct

D.Beveling

Answer Key: B

Question 17 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Most sharp force injuries are produced by objects that are NOT commonly designed for the purpose of inflicting injury?

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 18 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
“Bogus Pipeline” refers to the belief that the mere presence of the VSA will deter the individual from being deceptive.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 19 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
Rifled handguns are intended for use at short range, while shotguns are not intended to be precision arms at all.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 20 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
A habeas corpus proceeding is not a separate proceeding from a defendant’s criminal case.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 21 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
mtDNA by itself cannot distinguish among children born to the same mother

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 22 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Luminol is a type of confirmatory blood test

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 23 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
An aterial spurt/gush impact bloodspatter pattern is caused from the escape of blood under pressure

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 24 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Fingerprints are affected by the random movement of the fetus in the womb.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 25 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Incipient ridges occur in the furrow between the papillary lines on the volar epidermis.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 26 of 50 1.0/ 1.0 Points
Ridge detail can also be found on what other body part other than fingers?

A.Ear

B.Big Toe

C.Lip

D.All of the above

Answer Key: B

Question 27 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Dot-blot test kits are not suitable for screening “large” numbers of samples for DNA

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 28 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
The greater the limit government imposes on the rights of an individual to come and go, the greater and the more facts needed to justify the limitation.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 29 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Justices on the U.S. Supreme Court are divided on whether the proportionality principle applies to sentences of imprisonment.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 30 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
STRs stands for steady tandem repeats

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 31 of 50 0.0/ 10.0 Points
With regard to firearm injuries, discuss the procedures and findings to determine range of fire.

Many firearms have unique features that might be of critical importance in a forensic investigation. The forensic pathologist is not normally an expert on ballistics but they must be familiar with the basic operation of different weapons in order to determine the injuries resulting from them (Denton, 2006). The knowledge of muzzle shapes and sizes may be of particular interest so that a weapon may be determined. The approximate weight of the gun or muzzle or of the trigger pull and the amount of recoil may serve to explain how the injury was made.

Throughout the years firearms have been made more accurate and the amount of firepower to go through some of these weapons has increased. A firearm death usually falls in the category of homicide, suicide or accident and would be determined by the medical examiner. It is not generally a problem for one to survive a gunshot wound but then later may die from complications of that wound (Denton, 2006). The investigation of this might clarify the cause of death, identify the offender and might give rise to the actual cause of death. There are many questions to be answered and the medical examiner as well as the investigator collaborate to put the story together. The recovery of one or more of the bullets may serve to eliminate several firearms from play.

Bullets are composed of an explosive powder charge , which when struck forces the projectile element out . The most significant factor in causing death or serious injury is the placement and the projectile path. The head and torso for obvious reasons are the most vulnerable. The extent of tissue and organ damage depend on the ballistics which are influenced by the bullet, its velocity and mass as well as the physical characteristics of the penetrated tissue.

The range of fire is an estimate of how close the muzzle is to the point of contact. Depending on the range of fire, these substances can be deposited on skin or clothing. If the muzzle of the gun is in contact with the skin, these substances would be embedded in the wound or if it is in close proximity of the skin it might be deposited on the entrance of the wound. “ If the gun/muzzle is within 2 feet of the body these substances would be deposited on the skin or in the wound” (Scott, 2006).

Denton, J. Scott. Practical Pathology of Gunshot wounds. www.archivesofpatho logy.org. n Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006; 130: 1283-1289.

Question 32 of 50 0.0/ 10.0 Points
Compare the trespass doctrine with the privacy doctrine in defining Fourth Amendment searches.

The Fourth Amendment states the following…” A search occurs either when

(a) A trespassory test is satisfied: (1) a “trespass” occurs, (2) the trespass is onto an enumerated item listed in the Fourth Amendment (“persons, houses, papers, or effects”), and (3) it occurs with the intent “to find something or to obtain information” (Sceb, 2003)

or

(b) The Katz test is satisfied: the government conduct violates a subjective expectation of privacy and an objective reasonable expectation of privacy (Katz, 1967)

Each person has a reasonable expectation of privacy. Although privacy is not specifically written in the US Constitution, it has been paired with the substantive due process concept in which the government is barred from enforcing policies that are irrational, unfair, unreasonable, or unjust, even if the policies do not run counter to other specific constitutional prohibitions. In Katz, the Court emphasized the “expectation of privacy”. The fourth amendment does not cover places but people. The trespass doctrine has since been replaces with the reasonable expectation of privacy doctrine. Under the Fourth Amendment all searches are to be conducted under the authority of a warrant (the warrant rule). The Fourth Amendment also states that probable cause should form the basis of warrants, supported by oath or affirmation in the form of an affidavit.

Reference:

Katz v. US, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)

Scheb ,O; Stephens, J. American Constitutional Law 3rd ed. Thomas West.2003

Question 33 of 50 0.0/ 10.0 Points
Discuss in detail how wet blood, dried blood, and bloody clothing from a crime scene are collected and preserved for future analysis at the crime laboratory.

Blood evidence associated with a crime scene provides information that may solve a case. It is essential to correctly document, collect, and preserve this type of evidence. Improperly handled blood can weaken or destroy the evidence and the case that hinges on it. Properly collected and preserved evidence can link a suspect to a case. Communication is the key to effectively processing blood evidence. The capability of the lab should be known by the investigator to minimize errors. Although as technology changes so should the lab equipment. If it is a blood stain then it should look like blood. Unfortunately Luminol is not the best reagent for enhancing bloody impressions because of its water base. Only when the crime scene has been thoroughly documented and the locations of the evidence noted, then the collection process can begin.

Dried blood stains. “ If the item is small and transportable, package it in a paper bag or envelope. If the item is larger, cutting a portion of the item with the blood stain should be obtained and sent in separate paper envelopes. Tape lifting blood stains is another way to obtain blood stains. This would be the same tape as the fingerprint people use. The stain should be lifted and set on a vinyl acetate backing. Label stain and package in paper envelope. Scraping blood stains into a paper packet can be another way to obtain blood stains. Using a clean sharp instrument carefully scrape the stain into an envelope” (Warren, 1991).

Wet Blood stains. “ If the item is small and transportable, package in a paper bag or a plastic bag to prevent contamination of other objects. After bringing it to a secured location, the contents of the bag must be allowed to thoroughly air dry. If the stain is too large to transport, then the stain should be absorbed onto a 1×1 square of cotton muslin. Package it in paper or plastic to prevent other contamination. After bringing it to a secured location the cotton should be allowed to thoroughly dry” (Warren, 1991).

Reference:

Warren. Joseph. “Optimal Medium for the Transfer of Crime Scene Stains for DNA Analysis”, Paper presented at the La. Association of Forensic Scientists’ Fall, 1991 Meeting, October 26, 1991, Harahan, La.

Question 34 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Armour piercing bullets / rounds tend to:

A.Penetrate through ballistic armour easily

B.Are made from steel, tungsten alloy and pointed cores
C.Are hollow in the core of the bullet itself

D.Only a and b

Answer Key: D

Question 35 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Defendants have the right under the Sixth Amendment to force witnesses to come to court to testify for them. This is called:

A.Cross-examination

B.Direct examination

C.The right to compel testimony

D.Compulsory process.

Answer Key: D

Question 36 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
What are the 5 manners of death?

A.Natural, Disease, Trauma, Suicide, Unknown

B.Disease, Unknown, Accidental, Suicide, Not listed

C.Natural, Accidental, Suicide, Homicide, Undetermined
D.Murder, Trauma, Accidental, Suicidal, Not listed

Answer Key: C

Question 37 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Which one of the following manners of death describes “instantaneous physiologic death?”

A.Homicide

B.Accidental

C.Undetermined

D.Natural

Answer Key: D

Question 38 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
What layer of skin must be damaged in order to have a permanent scar?

A.Sweat pores

B.Stratum Spinosum

C.Basal layer of the epidermis

D.Furrows

Answer Key: C

Question 39 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
What would a fingerprint in butter be considered?

A.Latent Print

B.Patent Print

C.Inked Print

D.Plastic Print

Answer Key: D

Question 40 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
When the crime scene technician secures clothing from a bloodied firearms scene, he/she should:

A.Immediately secure the bloodied clothing in a plastic bag and place into an evidence locker for later review.
B.Clean the clothing with bleach before it goes into the police station for processing

C.Remove bloodied clothing from paper bag at the lab and allow to dry in a secured area
D.Remove bloodied clothing from paper bag at the lab and leave in the same condition as officers detected it from the scene.

Answer Key: C

Question 41 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Which type of death described below does NOT require an autopsy?

A.Stabbing in a hospital setting

B.Healthy person suddenly dies of no apparent reason

C.Suicide accompanied by a note

D.Hospitalized person dies of long-term known disease

Answer Key: D

Question 42 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
A “proximate” cause of death is defined as:

A.A death that occurs nearby the victim

B.A death that results indirectly from intervening causes.

C.A death that results from several attackers

D.A parent killing a child

Answer Key: B

Question 43 of 50 0.0/ 1.5 Points
A defendant’s youthful age at the time he committed a murder is considered an aggravating factor in most death penalty sentencing statutes.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 44 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Many opponents of DNA databases argue that DNA samples contain sensitive information about race, ethnicity, paternity, disease susceptibility, and ultimately will be abused in a number of ways

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 45 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Furrows of on a fingerprint are located where?

A.Under the pores

B.Between the ridges
C.Under the nail

D.None of the above

Answer Key: B

Question 46 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
An expectorate impact blood spatter is caused when blood is forced from the mouth, nose, or respiratory system:

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 47 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
The Cyanoacrylate method is used for processing what type of surfaces for fingerprints?

A.Porous

B.Nonporous

C.Both A and B

D.Neither A or B

Answer Key: B

Question 48 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
Surface tension is what causes a blood drop to clot

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: False

Question 49 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
A “flow” type stain is a “non-spatter” stain.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

Question 50 of 50 1.5/ 1.5 Points
There is no available methodology in place to measure the amount of comparable detail in a fingerprint.

A. True

B. False

Answer Key: True

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